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Ativisha Use, Properties, Benefits, Dose, and Side Effect

Indrodution to Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum)

Ativisha is a well-known plant with numerous therapeutic benefits. Although it doesn’t have a poisonous effect, it is listed in the Ayurvedic Upavisha category. It has a wide range of medicinal qualities. Ativisha is also known as the Shishu bhaishaja Due to its widespread use in treating pediatric diseases (Balg Roga). Bhangura is another name for it because it breaks so easily.

What is the botanical name of Ativisha?

Aconitum heterophyllum
Aconite with dissimilar species.

What is the Family of Ativish (Aconitum heterophyllum)?

Ranunculaceae

अतिविषा – विषं अतिक्रान्ता ।

It is non-poisonous though it belongs to the family of poisonous plants.

Main Synonyms of Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum):

I. Based on Habitat:

Kashmira and Maadri

Kashmira: – कश्मीरेभवा – grows in Kashmir.

Maadri: मद्रदेशेभवा ।

II. Description of the root:

Shuklakanda, Shringi, Ghunavallabha, Bhangura,

Shuklakanda: शुक्लवर्णकन्दोऽस्या:- tuber is white in colour.

Shringi: tuber is horn like

Ghunavallabha: आशु: घुणै: संसृज्यते : affected by insects easily.

Bhangura: भज्यते इति शीलमस्या: it is fragile

III. Based on the action:

Ativish, Vishva, Visha, Shishubhaishajya, Atisaraghni, Pittavallabha, Shophaapaha.

Ativish: विषमतिक्रान्तः : it is non-poisonous even though it belongs to genus of poisonous plants.

Vishva and Visha: It is assimilated quickly in the body.

विश्वा-विशतिशरीरमाशु, विषप्रवेशेन ।

विषा – वेवेष्टि व्याप्नोति

Shishubhaishajya: बालरोगेशुलाभप्रदा -useful in children

Atisaraghni: अतिसारंनाशयति- useful in atisara

Pittavallabha : पित्तरोगेफलप्रदा – useful in pitta vikara

Shophapaha: शोफनाशिनी-cures shopha

Regional Names of Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum):

  • English- Atis Root
  • Bengali- Ataicha
  • Gujarati- Ativishni Kali. Ativikhani Kali.
  • Hindi- Atis.
  • Kannada- Ativish, Athihage.
  • Malayalam- Atividayam, Ativitayam.
  • Marathi- Ativish.
  • Tamil- Atividayam.
  • Telugu- Ativasa.

Classification of Ativisha (Gana) as in Charaka and Sushruta:

Charaka: Lekhaniya, Arshoghna, Tiktaskandha, Shirovirechana

Sushruta: Pippalyadi, Mustadi, Vachadi

Ashtanga Sangraha: Pippalyadi, Mustadi, Vacadi

Ashtanga Hrdya: Lekhaniya, Arsöghna, Pippalyadi, Mustadi, Vacadi

External Morphology of Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum):

Root: biennial, paired, tuberous, bark very thin, whitish or grey, fracture pure white.

Stem: erect, simple, or branched.

Leaves: more or less heteromorphous, blade orbicular to cordate or ovate-cordate in outline with a usually narrow sinus.

Inflorescence: a slender raceme or a lax, leafy panicle.

Seeds: blackish brown.

Varieties:

Shodhala: Shukla, Krishna and Aruna

Madanadi: Rakta, Shweta, Krishna, and Pita.

Substitute and Adulterant:

The roots of Aconitum kashmericum Stapf. ex Coventry (a closely allied species) are sold in the market as a cheap substitute by the name of “Atis Kashmiri” or “Kala Atis”. Atis root is adulterated with Asparagus racemosus Willd., Asparagus gonocladus Baker, Delphinium denudatum Wall. ex Hook. and Chaerophyllum villosum Wall. ex DC. (CCRAS Database Volume VII)

Useful Parts: Root

Important Phytoconstituents of (Aconitum heterophyllum):

Atidine, Atisine, Hetisine, Diterpene

Rasa Panchaka of Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum):

  • Rasa: Tikta, Katu
  • Virya: Ushna
  • Karma: Lekhaniya, Shirovirechana
  • Guna: Laghu, Ruksha
  • Vipaka: Katu

Action of Ativisha on Dosha, Dhatu, and Mala:

Dosha: It is tridoshahara, but since it is atitikta, it is mainly kaphapittahara. Because of ushnavirya it is vatahara.

Mala: Graahi

Pharmacological Activity:

Spasmogenic, Hypertensive, Hypotensive, Antifertility, Psychostimulant, Antidepressant, CNS-inhibitor, Antidiarrhoeal, Antidiabetic, Anti-pyretic, Antibacterial, Analgesic. (CCRAS Database Volume VII)

Medicinal Properties of Ativisha – (Aconitum heterophyllum)

  • Pachana – It helps to increase Digestion.
  • Deepani – increases the Digestive power.
  • Arsoghna – It is beneficial in piles
  • Grahi – It is good absorbent
  • Rakthasodaka – purifies the blood
  • Visaghna – anti-toxic
  • Krimighna – removes intestinal worm infestation from the human body.
  • Jvaraghna – It may reduce fever
  • Sothahara – It is useful in swelling

Prayogarhavyadhi (Therapeutic Benefits of Ativisha):

Jvara, Kasa, Chardi, Amatisara, Krimiroga

Amayikaprayoga of Atis (Therapeutic Use of Ativisha)

1. Amatisara: Ativisha churna (1 tola) and Shunthichurna (1 tola) are given as peya (Ch.Su 2/22)

2. Grahani: Kwatha of Ativisha, Shunthi, and Mustha is given for Amapachana (Ch. Chi 15/58)

3. Mushika Visha: Ativisha root is made into a paste by grinding with honey and administered orally.

This herb is beneficial for viral fever, diarrhea, dysentery, etc. For this reason, it has been utilized as a traditional folk remedy for centuries.

The use of Atis preparations also provides relief for IBS, piles, and hemorrhoids.

Due to its aphrodisiac qualities, atis is very effective in managing both male and female sexual health.

Dose of Atis:

Dose: 0.6-2.0 g of the drug in powder form (API Vol I)

Vishista Yoga Ativisha (Names of Important Formulations of Ativisha):

  • Ativisha avaleha
  • Chaturbhadra avaleha
  • Dashanga agadam
  • Balachaturbhadra churna
  • Mah¡vishagarbha Taila
  • Lodhrasava
  • Shiva Gutika
  • Lakshminarayana  Rasa
  • Rasnairandadi Kvatha
  • Rasnairandadi Churna
  • Sudarsana Churna
  • Panchatikta Guggulu
  • Panchatikta Ghrita

Vishakta Lakshana Atis (Side Effects of Ativisha):

Overdose (more than 5-6g) produces symptoms like dry mouth, tremors, etc.

How to do Shodhana of Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum)?

Treatment with gomutra and godugdha, similar to Vatsanabha. Classical References:

Classical Reference of Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum)

Synonyms of Aconitum heterophyllum:

विषात्वतिविषाविश्वा श्रङ्गीप्रतिविषाऽरुणा । शुक्लकन्दाचोपविषाभङ्गुराघुणवल्लभा । (भा.प्र.)

Guna Karma of Aconitum heterophyllum:

अतिविषादीपनीयपाचनीयसंग्राहिकसर्वदोषहराणाम्। (चरक)

विषासोष्णाकटुस्तिक्तापाचनीदीपनीहरेत् । कफपित्तातिसारामविषकासवमिक्रिमीन्।। (भा.प्र., कै.नि.)

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