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Home » Bhallataka (marking nut) Use, Benefits, Purification, Properties, and Side effect

Bhallataka (marking nut) Use, Benefits, Purification, Properties, and Side effect

Indroduction to Bhallataka

Bhallataka is mentioned in Ayurvedic classics under the Upavisha group and is classified as a poisonous medicinal plant. Bhallataka fruit is used to cure many diseases as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine.

What is the Botanical Name of Bhallataka?

Semecarpus anacardium Linn
Semecarpus-Simeion=marking, tracing names
Carpus-carpos=nut.
Anacardium = heart like.

What is the Family of Bhallataka?

Anacardiaceae

भल्लातक - भल्ल इवातति तैक्ष्ण्यात्।

Bhallataka is tikshna like a Bhalla.

Main Synonyms of Bhallataka:

I. Plant:

Tree with irritant bark

भल्ली - भल्ल इव तीक्ष्णोरसोऽस्य ।

II. Fruit:

i. Obliquely ovoid: Dhanurbija

धनुर्बीज - धनुरिवबीजमस्य ।

ii. Seated in fleshy orange cup: Agnimukhi

अग्निमुखी - अग्निवद्रक्तपीतंमुखंशीर्षभागोऽस्य ।

iii. Has oily nuts: Tailabija

तैलबीज- तैलंबीजोऽस्य ।

iv. Juice produces blisters and swellings on touch: Arushkara, Shophakrut.

अरुष्कर - अरुर्वृणंकरोतीति ।
शोफकृत् - शोफंकरोतिस्पर्शादिति ।

III. Based on actions:

1. Highly potent: Viravruksha

वीरवृक्ष - वीर्यवान् वृक्षः ।

2. Tikshna: Bhallataka

भलातक - भल्ल इवाततितैक्ष्ण्यात् ।

3. Kills worms and organisms- Krimighna, Bhutanashana

कृमिघ्न - कृमीन् हन्तीति ।
भूतनाशन - भूतान् नाशयतीति ।

4. Useful in tumors- Bhedana

भेदन - भिनत्ति अर्बुदादीनिति ।

5. Useful in vatavikara-Vatari

वातारि वातनाशनः ।

6. Blackening agent- Ranjaka

रञ्जक - रञ्जयतित्वगादीनिति ।

7. Produces burning: Agnika

अग्निक - अग्निवत् दह्नस्तापना ।

Regional Names of Bhallataka:

  • English Name of Bhallataka- The marking nut.
  • Hindi Name of Bhallataka- Bhilava.
  • Punjabi Name of Bhallataka- Bilava.
  • Bengali Name of Bhallataka- Bhela, Bhelatuki.
  • Marathi Name of Bhallataka- Bibba.
  • Gujarati Name of Bhallataka- Bhilamo.
  • Kannada Name of Bhallataka- Geru.
  • Telugu Name of Bhallataka- Jidichettu.
  • Tamil Name of Bhallataka- Shenkottai.
  • Malayalam Name of Bhallataka- Chermara.

Classification of Bhallataka (Gana) as in Charaka and Sushruta:

Charaka: Dipaniya, Bhedaniya, Kusthaghna,Mutrasangrahaniya

Sushruta: Nyagrodhadi, Mustadi

External Morphology of Bhallataka:

A moderate-sized tree, Leaves are Obovate- Oblong, Main nerves: 15-25 pairs, prominent on both surfaces.

Flowers: greenish white.

Fruit: Drupe, obliquely ovoid or oblong, smooth and shining, black when ripe, seated on a fleshy receptacle or hypocarp.

Useful Parts of Bhallataka: Fruit

Important Phytoconstituents of Bhallataka:

Fruit contains Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid, Non

Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). (A.P.I Volume II)

Rasa Panchaka of Bhallataka:

  • Rasa: Katu, Tikta, Kashaya
  • Guna: Laghu, Snigdha, Tikshna
  • Virya: Ushna
  • Vipaka: Madhura
  • Karma: Deepana, Kaphahara, Pacana, Vatahara, Chedi, Bhedi, Medhya

Action of Bhallataka on Dosha, Dhatu, Mala :

Doshaghnata: Vatakaphahara

Dhatu: Dhatuvardhaka

Mala: Vata and mala anulomaka.

Prayogarha Vyadhi of Bhallataka (Therapeutic Benefits of Bhallataka):

  • Arsha
  • Aanaha
  • Grahani
  • Gulma
  • Krimi
  • Kustha.

Amayikaprayoga of Bhallataka (Therapeutic Use of Bhallataka)

External Use of Bhallataka:

i. Romashatana: Bhallataka taila with snuhiksheera (S.B)

ii. Savarnikarana: Bhallataka taila should be applied on the wound scar. (Su.chi 1/90-93)

iii. Indralupta: After siravyadha, a thick paste of dhatturapatra with Bhallataka juice is applied. (A.S.U)

Internal Use of Bhallataka:

i. Arshas: Bhallatakakalpa (Su.chi 6/17), Bhallatakataila (Su.chi 6/18)

ii. Krimi: Paana or Basti of Bhallatakataila. (A.H.chi)

iii. Gulma: Ghee cooked with kalka and kwatha of Bhallataka with sugar cures raktagulma and with honey cures Kaphajagulma. (C.D)

Dose of Bhallataka:

Bhallataka Kshirapaka-1.2gm. (A.P.I Volume II)

Bhallataka Taila – 5-10 Drop ( More Than 10 Drop Fatal for Human Body)

What is the Fatal Dose of Bhallataka?

Bhalltaka Churna more than 10 Gms.
Bhalltaka Taila More than 10 Drops.
Bhalltaka KshiraPaka more than 10 Gms.

What is the Fatal Period of Bhallatak?

5 Hours to 24 hours.

Vishista Yoga of Bhallataka (Names of Important Formulations of Bhallataka):

  1. Amrutabhallataka
  2. Bhallatakataila
  3. Sanjivani vati
  4. Tilarushkara yoga

Vishakta Lakshana (Adverse Effects):

The urine becomes dark in color, Burning and itching sensation all over the body, Atisara, Jvara, Raktameha and Unmada. In the beginning there will be itching in the anus and penis.

Chikitsopachara (Bhallataka Antidote Side Effects)

Stop the drug, tender coconut water should be taken, narikelataila/ghruta or nagadrava should be applied externally.

Shodhana of Bhallataka (Purification of Bhallataka)

For shodhana, Bhallatak fruits are taken after removing the attachment of the thalamus. They are soaked in gomutra for 7 days and thereafter in godugdha for 7 days. Well-Ripened fruits are taken and tested by putting them in a vessel containing water. When the fruits get down to the vessel, they are considered as prashasta.

Bhallataka Shodhana:

(1) Take Bhallataka, remove the attached thalamus and soak in Gomutra for 7 days. Replace Gomutra every 24 hr with fresh Gomutra. After 7 days, rinse the Bhallataka twice with water, to wash off the Gomutra.

(2) Soak Bhallataka in godugdha for 7 days, replacing godugdha every 24 hours with fresh godugdha. After 7 days, rinse the Bhallataka 2 or 3 times with water to wash off the godugdha.

(3) Put the Bhallataka in a thick jute bag containing coarse brick powder and rub carefully, with a view to reducing the oil content in Bhallataka (A.F.I Volume I)

Casution Taken During Bhallataka Taken as Medicine

Aatapa, Vyavaya, Vyayama, Mamsa, Lavana, and Abhyanga should be avoided during the intake of Bhallataka.

Health Benefits of Marking Nut (Bhalltaka)

The nut contains a high concentration of phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, biflavonoids, minerals, vitamins, and amino acids, according to chemical analysis. Various extracts derived from the nut are thought to be effective against a variety of diseases, including cancer, arthritis, infections, and many others. Indeed, the fruits, seeds, and oil of this plant have been discovered to have medicinal value and are thus used to treat a wide range of diseases. The following are a few of the most well-known health benefits of Marking Nut.

Cancer cure

According to research, the nut extract of Marking Nut has an inhibitory effect on human breast cancer cells. Kalpaamruthaa, a chemotherapy agent made up of Bibba nut milk extract, dried powder of Phyllanthus emblica fruit, and honey, is thought to be effective and promising. According to animal studies, Kalpaamruthaa has anti-carcinogenic activity by regulating lipid peroxidation and exhibiting antioxidant defences in mitochondrial enzymes. Another study found that giving Marking Nut to leukemic animals aided in the removal of leukemic cells from the internal organs and bone marrow.

Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a medical condition that is frequently caused by a balance of antioxidants and pro-oxidants. To avoid the development of such conditions, antioxidant therapy is recommended. Marking Nut has been discovered to have powerful antioxidant properties that aid in the fight against hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. This plant has also been shown to inhibit the process of atherogenesis caused by lipid peroxidation. Animal studies show that the Marking Nut plant helps to prevent cholesterol accumulation by inhibiting cholesterol absorption in the intestine.

Diabetes

The ethanolic extract of dried nuts of the Marking Nut was found to lower blood glucose levels in normal rats, according to research. It also significantly decreased blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes may benefit from the use of seeds. Such additional claims would be supported by additional research.

Leucoderma

Leucoderma is a benign skin disease characterised by white patches on the skin caused by pigmentation loss. In some cases, these patches turn red and cause severe itching. Marking Nut is thought to be an effective treatment for this skin condition. To treat leucoderma, doctors recommend taking one teaspoon of this medication twice a day.

Anti-inflammatory effects

Anti-inflammatory effects of Marking Nut nut extract on adjuvant arthritis studies revealed that the extract’s anti-inflammatory and therapeutic properties against all stages of inflammation are equivalent to that of indomethacin. Kalpaamruthaa is a siddha formulation made of Marking Nut milk extract, fresh dried powder of Emblica officinalis fruit, and honey. According to studies, when this formulation was given to arthritis-induced rats, it helped to normalise the activities of lysosomal enzymes, which are thought to be the mediators of inflammation.

Digestive health

Marking Nut is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders because it is an appetiser, purgative, digestant, liver stimulant, and anthelmintic. It is an effective treatment for appetite loss as well as a variety of digestive disorders such as constipation, abdominal distension, piles, and various types of intestinal worms, particularly hookworm. Marking Nut is an effective treatment for piles because it improves blood circulation, which reduces vein pressure and blood accumulation in the veins of the rectal area.

Good aphrodisiac

The Bhallataka plant has aphrodisiac properties and has been used to boost libido and sexual desire. It is frequently recommended as a tonic to improve male fertility due to its ability to increase sperm production. It is also employed in the treatment of seminal leakage and premature ejaculation. Semecarpus anacardium has traditionally been used to treat uterine inflammation as well as abnormal and painful menstruation in women.

Classical References of Bhallataka:

Synonyms of Bhallataka:

भल्लातकंत्रिषुप्रोक्तमरुष्कोऽरुष्करोऽग्निकः । 
तथैवाग्निमुखीभल्लीवीरवृक्षश्च शोफकृत्।। (भा.प्र.)

Guna Karma of Bhallataka:

भल्लातकःकषायोष्णः शुक्रलोमधुरोलघुः । 
वातश्लेष्मोदरानाहकुष्ठार्शोग्रहणीगदान्।
हन्तिगुल्मज्वरश्वित्रर्वा' मान्द्यकृमिव्रणान्।। (भा.प्र.)
भल्लातः कटुतिक्तोष्णोमधुरः कृमिनाशनः । 
गुल्मार्शोग्रहणीकुष्ठान् हन्तिवातकफामयान्। (ध.नि.)
भल्लातकानितीक्ष्णानिपाकीन्यग्निमुखानिच । 
भवन्त्यमृतकल्पानिप्रयुक्तानियथाविधि ।
कफजोनसरोगोऽस्ति न विबन्धोऽस्तिकश्चन ।
यं न भल्लातकं हन्याच्छीघ्रं मेधाग्निवर्धनं ।। (चरक)

Conclusion of Bhallataka

Precautionary measures must be taken from the collection of the drug Bhallataka (fruits) to the disposal of media and the handling of utensils used in the Shodhana process. Applying coconut oil before and during collection will protect against contact dermatitis caused by Bhallataka fruits. Pitta Shamaka remedies to be used to treat urushiol-induced contact dermatitis. Bhallataka’s Shodhana (processing) should take place in the open.

Frequently Asked Questions About Bhallataka

What is Bhallataka in Ayurveda?

Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned in Ayurvedic classics under the Upavisha group and is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in the Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940.

What is Bhilawa used for?

Bhilawa Seeds can help with diseases such as piles, colitis, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, ascites, tumours, and worms. Bhilawa fruit is beneficial in the treatment of leucoderma, scaly skin, allergic reactions, dermatitis, poisonous bites, leprosy, cough, asthma, and dyspepsia.

Is marking nut poisonous?

Nut for marking Semecarpus anacardium is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity because it contains a pigment that was previously used to mark fabrics. It can be consumed as an ingredient in some traditional Hindi dishes. We present the first case of anaphylaxis to marking nut.

Which is the active component of marking nut?

Anacardic acid, cardol, catechol, anacardoside, fixed oil, semecarpol, bhilawanol, biflavonoids, biflavones, and other active principles are found in it.

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