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Home » Bibhitaki (Baheda) Terminalia bellirica: Use, Benefits, Dose, Properties and Side Effect

Bibhitaki (Baheda) Terminalia bellirica: Use, Benefits, Dose, Properties and Side Effect

Introduction To Bibhitaki

Bibhitaki is a large deciduous tree native to India that can grow to heights of 30 meters. The tree’s trunk is straight and brownish-grey in color. The leaves are long, alternate, oval, and clustered at the tips of the branches. These measures 7-14cm across and 10-12cm long. Flowers are simple and solitary, white or yellow in color, and have an unpleasant odor. Baheda Flowers bloom during the month of May. The upper part of the plant is male, while the lower part is female. Baheda fruits are grey-colored drupes with an ovoid shape. Sweet kernels within the hard covering of fruit taste sweet. Its fruit is similar to Haritaki fruit but lacks ridges.

Bibhitaki is a member of one of the three major herb groups, Jwarahara, which is used to treat fever. Kasahara herbs, which are used to treat colds and coughs, and Virechanopaga herbs, which are used in Panchakarma detoxification. The ayurvedic formulation is well-known for its ability to balance the Kapha and Vata doshas. Several studies have revealed that the fruit’s bioactive compounds have anti-depressant properties that are effective in combating stress and anxiety.

What is the Botanical Name of Bibhitaki?

Terminalia bellerica Roxb.
Terminalia: Terminus (Latin) – the end on a limit
Bellerica: Baley (Arabic) – the name of the tree

What is the Family of Bibhitaki?

Combretaceae

Basonym of Drug:

बिभीतक = बिभ्यतिरोगा अस्मादिति विगतं भीतंरोग भयमस्मादिति ।

Pacifies diseases and maintains health.

Dravyaparichaya of Bibhitaki :

विभीतकोमहावृक्षोह्यणुपुष्पोभवेद् गिरौ ।
वटपत्रोवृत्तफलोवसन्तेफलदःस्मृताः।। (शिवदत्त)

It is a large tree (Mahavruksha). The flowers appear in vasant rutu and are small (Anupushpa). The leaves are similar to that of Vata. The fruits are rounded (Vruttaphala)

1. Abode of Kali: Kalidruma

Main Synonyms of Bibhitaki:

I. Habitat:

grows mainly in Vindhya regions: Vindhyajata.

विन्ध्यजातः = विन्ध्यप्रदेशेबाहुल्येनजातः ।

II. Commonly known as Baheda: Bahedaka.

बहेडक = ‘बहेडा’ इति नाम्नाप्रसिद्ध ।

III. Synonyms related to the Tree:

1. Abode of Kali: Kalidruma

कलिद्रुम = कलेर्वृक्षः, द्यूतेप्रयुक्तत्वात्, द्यूतेकलिर्वसतीतिप्रसिद्ध ।

2. Abode of Bhutas: Bhutavasa

भूतवासा = भूताः वसति अत्र, कलिर्द्धमत्वेन भूतानां

IV. Flowers:

रक्षः पिशाचिदीनामावासः ।।

Appear in spring: Vasanta वसन्तेपुष्पितत्वात्।।

V. Fruits:

1. They are one Karsha in pramana: Karshaphala

कर्षफल = कर्षप्रमाणफलमस्या ।

2. The phalabija contains oil: Tailaphala

तैलफल = तैलयुक्तंफलंबीजमस्या ।

VI. Actions:

A. General:

i. Has Broad actions: Bahuvirya

बहुवीर्य = प्रभूतशक्तिमान्।

ii. Maintains health by pacifying diseases: Bibhitaka, Bibhedaka, Tusha, Samvartaka

बिभीतक = बिभ्यतिरोगा अस्मादिति विगतं भीतरोगभयमस्मादिति ।

बिभेदक = विशेषेणभिनत्तिरोगान् इति ।

तुषः = तुष्यत्यनेनेति।

संवर्तक = संवृणोतिरक्षतिरोगेभ्य इति ।

B. Specific:

Useful in Kaasa: Kasaghna

कासघ्न = कासंहन्तीति ।

Good for Netraroga: Aksha

अक्ष = अक्षमिन्द्रियं तत् हितत्वात् अक्षः ।

Regional Names of Bibhitaki:

Baheda in English- Belleric Myrobalan, Beddanut.

Bibhitaki in Hindi- Baheda.

Bibhitaki in Bengali- Baida, Bohera.

Bibhitaki in Marathi- Behda, Bahda.

Bibhitaki in Guajrati- Veheda, Beda.

Bibhitaki in Kannada- Tode, Toure, Torekayi.

Bibhitaki in Telugu- Tadichettu, Balla.

Bibhitaki in Tamil- Akkam, Tanitadi.

Bibhitaki in Punjabi- Baheda.

Classification of Bibhitaki (Gana) as in Charaka and Sushruta:

Charaka: Jvarahara, Kasahara, Virechanopaga

Sushruta: Triphala, Mustadi

External Morphology of Bibhitaki:

A large deciduous tree, 10-20mtrs high.

The leaves are alternate and arranged at the extremities of the branches. Broadly elliptic or elliptic-obovate in shape. Both surfaces are puberulous when young, glabrous, and reticulate when old. The margin is entire, and the base is narrowed. The midrib is prominent on both surfaces. Petioles are without glands at the apex.

Flowers: Greenish yellow, with an offensive odor in axillary slender spikes longer than petiole, but shorter than leaves.

Fruit: Drupe, ovoid, grey, suddenly narrowed into a very short stalk, velvety, obscurely 5-angled when dried.

Substitute and Adulterant in Bibhitaki

The bark of Terminalia bellirica Roxb. is used as an adulterant to the bark of Terminalia arjuna W. & A. The fruits of Terminalia bellirica are reported to be used as substitutes in the tanning industry for Terminalia chebula Retz. (CCRAS Database Volume III)

Useful Parts of Bibhitaki: Phala.

Important Phytoconstituents of Bibhitaki:

Fruit: Gallic acid, Tannic acid, and Glycosides. (A.P.I Volume I)

Rasa Panchaka of Bibhitaki:

  • Rasa: Kashaya
  • Guna: Ruksha, Laghu
  • Virya: Ushna
  • Vipaka: Madhura
  • Karma: Jvarahara, Kasahara, Virechanopaga, Chakshushya, Keshya, Bhedaka, Krimghna.

Action of Bibhitaki on Dosha, Dhatu, and Mala:

Action on dosha:

Ruksha, Laghu, Kashaya-Kaphahara, Madhuravipaka-Pittahara, Ushna-Vatahara, thus it is tridoshahara.

Action on dhatu:

It is rasa, Rakta and Mamsadoshashamaka

Action on mala:

Shushkaphala is Grahi, Ardhapakvaphala is Rechaka

Pharmacological Activity of Bibhitaki:

Purgative, blood pressure depressant, Antifungal, Antihistaminic, Activity against viral hepatitis and vitiligo, Antiasthmatic, Bronchodilatory, Anti-spasmodic, Antibacterial, CNS stimulant, Amoebicidal, Antistress, and Endurance promoting activity.

Prayogarhavyadhi of Bibhitaki (Therapeutic Benefits of Bibhitaki):

  • Netraroga
  • Atisara
  • Shotha
  • Kasa
  • Swasa
  • Hrudroga
  • Ashmari.

Amayikaprayoga of Bibhitaki (Therapeutic Use of Bibhitaki):

External Use of Bibhitaki:

1. Netraroga (Shukra): Vibhitaka seed kernel mixed with Madhu is used as anjana. (Su.chi 9/18)

2. Granthi Visarpa: Hot paste of the bark of vibhitaka should be applied. (Ch.chi 21/124)

Internal Use of Bibhitaki:

1. Atisara: Burnt fruit of Vibhitaki mixed with salt, checks Atisara if severe. (B.S)

2. Shotha: Vibhitaki kalka should be taken with tandulodaka.

3. Kasa, Swasa: Vibhitaki powder (10 grams) with Madhu has to be taken after meals. (C.D 12/18)

4. Ashmari: Seeds of vibhitaki are pounded with madya, and consumed. It removes the mutragata doshas and cures ashmari.

Dose of Bibhitaki:

Churna: 3-6gms (A.P.I Volume I)

Bibhitaki Tablets: 2-3 tablets Twice a day.

Vishista Yoga (Names of Important Formulations):

  • Vibhitakataila
  • Triphala churna
  • Triphaladi Ghruta
  • Phalatrikadikwatha
  • Talisadichurna
  • Lavangadivati.

Classical Reference Bibhitaki:

Synonyms of Bibhitaki:

बिभीतकस्त्रिलिङ्गः स्यादक्षः कर्षफलस्तुसः । 
कलिद्रुमो भूतवासस्तथा कलियुगालयः । । Guna Karma
बिभीतकंस्वादुपाकंकषायंकफपित्तनुत् । 
उष्णवीर्यहिमस्पर्षभेदनंकासनाशनम्।।
रूक्षं नेत्रहितंकेश्यंकृमिवैस्वर्यनाशनम् ।
बिभीतमज्जातृट्छर्दिकफवातहरीलघुः।।
कषायोमदकृच्चाथधात्रीमज्जाऽपितद् गुणः । (भा.प्र.)
रसासृङ्मांसमेदोजान् दोषान् हन्तिविभीतकम् । 
स्वरभेदकफोत्क्लेदपित्तरोगविनाशनम् ।। (च.सू. २७)
विभीतकःकटुपाकेलघुवैस्वर्यजित् सरः ।  कासाक्षिवक्त्ररोगघ्नः केशवृद्धिकरः परः । । (ध.नि.)

Nutritional Value of Bibhitaki: 

The nutritional content in Bibhitaki/100 gm is as follows:

The nutritional content found in Bibhitaki/100 gm is: 

Carbohydrates 20.27  ± 0.95
Moisture 167.5  ± 0.6 
Fats 94.43  ± 0.62 
Fibers 6.25  ± 1.60
Proteins 6.96  ± 0.04
Potassium  3.35  ± 0.12
Phosphorus 0.35  ± 0.019
Calcium  3.5  ± 0.31
Nitrogen 3.41  ± 0.07 
Zinc  50.84  ± 1.33
Sodium  2.35  ± 0.20 
Iron  294.00  ± 24.00
Copper  65.00  ± 0.85
Magnesium  0.37  ± 0.02 

Side Effect Of Bibhitaki

There is no Eide effect note while taking Bibhitaki, but if you take an overdose of Bibhitaki then you might suffer from loose motion (Diahheria).

Frequently Asked Questions about Bibhitaki

What is Bibhitaki good for?

Many antioxidants, including ellagic acid, tannins, lignans, and flavones, are found in Bibhitaki. The compounds may improve blood sugar levels and insulin sensitivity while also having anti-inflammatory properties.

What is Bibhitaki in Ayurveda?

Baheda is also known as “Bibhitaki” in Sanskrit which means “The one that keeps away from diseases”. It is one of the main components of “Triphala,” which is used to treat common colds, pharyngitis, and constipation. The Baheda tree is a large deciduous tree native to India.

Is Bibhitaki a habit-forming herbal remedy?

Yes, Bibhitaki is habit-forming if you take it daily.

Is Bibhitaki good for hair?

Bibhitaki herbal oil is a remedy for hair loss. It also helps to keep dandruff and lice at bay. The use of Bibhitaki oil is beneficial to the hair.

 Is Bibhitaki fruit good for diabetes? 

Yes, Bibhitaki is beneficial to diabetics. Animal models were used to test the anti-diabetic properties of Bibhitaki fruit extract. The extract increased plasma insulin, C-peptide, and glucose tolerance while restoring body weight and total protein levels. Human efficacy studies are lacking.

Is Bibhitaki good for the liver? 

Yes, Bibhitaki is beneficial to the liver. Animals treated with Bibhitaki fruit extract and gallic acid had higher levels of biochemical indicators like serum enzymes, lipid peroxidase, and glutathione, indicating liver protection.

Is Bibhitaki good for preventing kidney stones? 

Yes, Bibhitaki can help you avoid kidney stones. The Bibhitaki fruit extract prevented kidney stones in animal models by decreasing oxalate, calcium, and phosphate excretion, which is beneficial in stone formation. However, human efficacy studies are required.

What are the benefits of Bibhitaki fruits? 

The fruit of behada is used to treat asthma, bronchitis, hepatitis, diarrhoea, piles, dyspepsia, eye diseases, hoarseness of voice, scorpion sting, hair tonic, and menstrual disorders.

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