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Chapter 1 Birth of the Ayurveda

Chapter 1 Birth of the Ayurveda

ग्रन्थकर्तृमङ्गलाचरणम्भक्त्यानमत्त्रिदशराजकिरीटकोटिरत्नावलीकिरणराजिविराजमानम् । श्रीमत्करीन्द्रवदनस्य पदारविन्दद्वन्द्वं सदा जयति सिद्धिकरं क्रियाणाम् ।।१।।

1. Manglācaranam (The holy recital): Both the lotus feet of God Śrī Ganesh which are capable to bless one with accomplishments in different endeavors and which are illuminated by the rays emanating from the various gems studded in the headgear (kirīt) of Indra the king of gods bowing in respect, may remain ever glorious.

नेत्रानन्दकरं करीन्द्रवदनं लम्बोदरं सुन्दरं क्रीडन्तं गिरिजोरसि प्रियतयाऽऽलिङ्ग्यात्मजं निर्भरम् । स्वान्तोत्थप्रमदौघकालनधिया श्रीविश्वनाथं श्रिता श्रेयः सर्वजनस्य मे च कुरुतान्माताऽन्नपूर्णा सदा । ॥ नत्वा देवगणांस्ततो गुरुवरं श्रीसत्यनारायणं श्रीताराचरणं नृसिंहविबुधं श्रीदुण्ढिराजन्तथा । भूलोकं रुदतश्च बान्धवजनान् दूरस्थमेनं जनं त्यक्त्वा विष्णुपदं गतस्य च पितुः पादारविन्दावपि ।। इन्दौराख्यपुरीयमान्यविबुधश्रीहुक्मिचन्दातुरस्थाने श्रेष्ठतमे समागतजनान् कुर्वन् सदा नीरुजान् । आयुर्वेदपयोधिमन्थकरणे व्यामोहविध्वंसिनभाषामाकलयामि सर्वसरलां भैषज्यरत्नावलीम् ।।

शिवपार्वतीवन्दना –

वन्देऽम्बिकाचन्द्रचूडौ जननीजनकावुभौ । निपत्य धरणौ भक्त्या प्रत्यूहव्यूहशान्तये || २ ||

2. Homage to God Śiva and Pārvati:

I also bow respectfully before the Goddess Parvati and God Mahadeva who are parents of entire mankind.

विष्णुपदवन्दना –

श्रीगोविन्दपदारविन्दयुगलं वन्दारुवृन्दारक श्रेणीनम्रशिरः किरीटवलभीनीलोत्पलेन्दिन्दिरम् । नत्वासद्धिषजांमुदेवितनुतेगोविन्ददासोऽधुना, नानाग्रन्थमहाब्धिलब्धसगुणां भैषज्यरत्नावलीम् ।।३।।

3. Homage to God Visnu:

I also salute both of the lotus feet of God Vișnu that are glorified like the wasp over a blue lotus as these feet are illustrated by the gems of headgears of the various Gods who line up to show their respect. After respectfully saluting the God Vișnu me Govinda Das, to the delight of the gentlemen physicians, start composing the text ‘Bhaiṣajya Ratnavalī that is based on the great Ayurvedic texts which are as large as the oceans.

ग्रन्थकर्तुर्निवेदनम्

यदि प्रियतमान स्याद् बुधानां भिषजामियम् । तथाऽपि नव्या नव्यानामानुकूल्यं विधास्यति ।।४।।

4. Submission by the original author:

Even if this new work named Bhaişṣajya Ratnavalī does not delight the scholarly physicians this would definitely appear helpful for the young students of Ayurveda.

आयुर्वेदस्य लक्षणम्आयुर्हिताहितं व्याघेर्निदानं शमनं तथा । विद्यते यत्र विद्वद्भिः स आयुर्वेद उच्यते ।।५।।

5. Definition of Ayurveda :

The discipline that describes the materials beneficial as well as harmful to the body; that describes the main reasons of the occurrence of diseases and diagnoses them, and that narrates methods of their treatment is called Ayurveda by the scholars.

आयुर्वेदस्य निरुक्ति:

अनेन पुरुषो यस्मादायुर्विन्दति वेत्ति च । तस्मान्मुनिवरैरेष आयुर्वेद इति स्मृतः ।।६।।

6. Purpose of Ayurveda:

As this kind of discipline helps the individuals to gain as well as to give long life to others (= Ayu), this science is called as Ayurveda (= text of Ayu).

कवेरुक्तिः

आयुर्वेदागमनं क्रमेण येनाभवद् भूमौ । प्रथमं लिखामि तमहं नानातन्त्राणि संदृश्य ।।७।।

7. Acknowledgement by the author:

First of all, I narrate the history of the birth of Ayurveda as described in great works of the ancient seers.

आयुर्वेदोत्पत्तिप्रकारः

ब्रह्मा स्मृत्वाऽऽयुषो वेदं प्रजापतिमजिग्रहत् ।
सोऽश्विनौतौसहसाक्षंसोऽत्रिपुत्रादिकान्मुनीन् । तेऽग्निवेशादिकांस्तेतु पृथक् तन्त्राणि तेनिरे ।।८।।

8. Different types of Ayurvedic texts:

First of all, God Brahmã narrated this discipline to Aśvini Kumāra-s, the twin brothers. The twin brothers then passed this knowledge to God Indra while Indra circulated the same to the seers including Atreya. These seers enlightened Agnives and other saint physicians. Agnives and other such saint physicians have subsequently authored different Ayurveda texts by their names.

क्रममाह । तत्रादौ ब्रह्मणः प्रादुर्भावःविधाताऽथर्वसर्वस्वमायुर्वेदं प्रकाशयन् ।
स्वनाम्ना संहितां चक्रे लक्षश्लोकमयीमृजुम् ।। ९ ।। L

9. Emergence of Brahmasamhita:

However, even before that, God Brahmā himself had composed an Ayurvedic text named ‘Brahmasamhitā’ that contained a hundred thousand slokas (verses, metric scale consisting of two lines each). This was an easy guide to the discipline and it was considered as abstract of Atharva Veda itself. (It may be noted that the Atharva Veda is one of the earliest four scriptures of India including the Rg Veda, Yajur Veda and Sam Veda as well).

ततः प्रजापतिं दक्षं दक्षं सकलकर्मसु । विधिर्धीनीरधिः साङ्गमायुर्वेदमुपादिशत् ।।१०।।

10. Then only, God Brahmā who is an ocean of intellect’ taught Daksa Prajāpati the discipline of Ayurveda with all its branches and sub-branches.

दक्षप्रादुर्भाव:

अथ दक्षः किषादक्षः स्ववैद्यौ वेदमानुषः । वेदयामास विद्वांसौ सूर्योशौ सुरसत्तमौ ||१९|

11. Emergence of Daksa:

After learning the Ayurveda from God Brahmä, Dakṣa who is very skilled in performing various tasks taught the discipline to the physicians of the heaven and to the scholar sons of God Surya (Sun), the twin brothers Asvini Kumāra-s.

अश्विनीसुतप्रादुर्भाव:

दक्षादधीत्यदस्त्रौवितनुतः संहितांस्वीयाम् । सकलचिकित्सकलोकप्रतिपत्तिविवृद्धये धन्याम् ।।१२।। 12. Emergence of Asvini Kumāra-S

After learning the Ayurveda, the great brothers Asvini Kumāra-s authored a text on the same for the benefit of knowledge of the physicians.

स्वयम्भुवः शिरश्छिन्नंभैरवेणरुषाऽथ तत् । अश्विभ्यां संहितं तस्मात्तौ जातौ यज्ञभागिनौ ||१३||

13. Once upon a time, the God Bhairava had cut the head of Brahmā in a rage. It was then none other but the twin brothers Aśvini Kumara-s who rejoined the head. It was only after that these brothers have been considered as to merit a share of the religions sacrifices and offerings.

देवासुररणे देवा दैत्यैर्ये सक्षताः कृताः । अक्षतास्ते कृताः सद्यो दस्त्राभ्यामद्भुतं महत् ।।१४।।

14. At the war with the demons many of the gods were maimed and injured. At that time also, the Aśvini Kumāra-s had successfully treated and cured the gods. It was their wonderful accomplishment.

वज्रिणोऽ भूभुजस्तम्भः सदस्राभ्यांचिकित्सितः । सोमान्निपतितश्चन्द्रस्ताभ्यामेवुखीकृतः ।।१५।।

15. When the arms of Indra stiffed, it were again Aśvinī Kumāra-s who restored his health. These brothers had also treated and cured God Candra (Moon) when he had fallen down from his space called Somaloka.

विशीर्णादशनाः पूष्णोनेत्रेनष्टेभगस्य च । शशिनो राजयक्ष्माऽभूदश्विभ्यां ते चिकित्सिताः ।।१६।।

16. The twin brothers had also treated and cured the tooth ( named Pusa ) as well as the eyes (named Bhaga) of God Sūrya. They had also cured the God Candra when he suffered from tuberculosis.

भार्गवश्च्यवनः कामी वृद्धः सन्विकृतिं गतः । वीर्यवर्णस्वरोपेतः कृतोऽश्विभ्यां पुनर्युवा ||१७||

एतैश्चान्यैश्च बहुभिः कर्मभिर्भिषजां वरौ । बभूवतुर्भृशं पूज्याविन्द्रादीनां दिवौकसाम् ।।१८।।

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17. The seer Cyavana (who was born in the line of seer Bhrigu and who was filled with sensual desires) when became old, it were again the Aśvini Kumāra-s who restored his youth. Cyavana regained his youth with all its vigour, stamina and beauty.

18. For all these reasons, Aśvinī Kumāra-s brothers have become very loveable and popular as very efficient physicians among the gods.

इन्द्रप्रादुर्भावः

संदृश्य दस्रयोरिन्द्रः कर्माण्येतानि यत्नवान् । आयुर्वेदं निरुद्वेगं तौ ययाचे शचीपतिः ।।१९।।

19. Emergence of Indra:

Impressed by their knowledge and skills, God Indra who is husband of goddess Šachi approached the Aśvini Kumāra-s with open and clean heart to learn the discipline of Ayurveda from them.

नासत्यौ सत्यसन्धेन शक्रेण किल याचितौ । आयुर्वेदं यथाऽधीतं ददतुः शतमन्यवे ।।२०।।

20. There upon, the Aśvinī Kumāra-s brothers taught truthful and determined Indra whatever knowledge they possessed regarding Ayurveda.

नासत्याभ्यामधीत्यैव आयुर्वेदं शतक्रतुः । अध्यापयामास बहूनात्रेयप्रमुखान्मुनीन् ।।२१।।

21. Subsequently, Indra taught this discipline to the seer Atreya and others.

आत्रेयप्रादुर्भावः

एकदा जगदालोक्य गदाकुलमितस्ततः । चिन्तयामास भगवानात्रेयो मुनिपुङ्गवः ।। २२ ।।
किंकरोमिक्वगच्छामिकथंलोका निरामयाः । भवन्ति सामयानेतान्न शक्नोमि निरीक्षितुम् ||२३||
दयालुरहमत्यर्थं स्वभावो दुरतिक्रमः । एतेषां दुःखतो दुःखं ममापि हृदयेऽधिकम् ।। २४ ।।
आयुर्वेदं पठिष्यामि नैरुज्याय शरीरिणाम् । इति निश्चित्य गतवानात्रेयस्त्रिदशालयम् ।।२५।।
तत्र मन्दिरमिन्द्रस्य गत्वा शक्रं ददर्श सः । सिंहासनसमासीनं स्तूयमानं सुरर्षिभिः ।। २६ ।।

22-26:. Emergence of Atreya

Once upon a time, the physician seer Atreya was moving around, he saw the people very disturbed due to various diseases prevailing in the world. He became very concerned about the mankind. He started contemplating upon as how to provide cure to the human beings from various diseases. He found himself unable to bear the grim situation of the people and became very sad by heart. There upon he marched to heaven to learn the Ayurveda from Indra so that he can circulate this knowledge and learning among human beings.

भासयन्तंदिशोभासा भास्करप्रतिमं त्विषा । आयुर्वेदमहाऽऽचार्यं शिरोधार्य्यं दिवौकसाम् ।।२७।।

27. In the heaven, he behold the great physician God Indra sitting on a royal throne emanating light from his person to all the ten directions. The heavenly seers bowing in respect surrounded him.

शक्रस्तु तं निरीक्ष्यैव त्यक्तसिंहासनः स्थितः । तमग्रे पूजयामास भृशं भूरितपः कृशम् ।। २८ ।।
कुशलं परिपप्रच्छ तथाऽऽगमनकारणम् । स मुनिर्वक्तुमारेभे निजागमनकारणम् ।।२९।।

28-29. However, immediately after his eyes fell on the seer Atreya (who has become very lean and thin practicing austerities), God Indra got up from his throne and worshiped the visitor properly. And then he asked as to why the seer had taken pains to come to his place.

देवराज ! नराजाऽसिदिवएवयतो भवान् । विधात्रा विहितो यत्नात्रिलोकीलोकपालकः ।।३०।। व्याधिभिर्व्यथितालोकाःशोकाकुलितचेतसः । भूतले सन्ति सन्तापं तेषां हन्तुं कृपां कुरु ।। ३१ ।।

30-31. The seer replied – ‘O the king of God! You are not only the king of heaven but you have been entrusted by Brahma to take care of all the three worlds as well. These days people are suffering miserably on the earth (which is considered as one of the three worlds). Please have the mercy to remove the sorrow of them.

आयुर्वेदोपदेशंमे कुरु कारुण्यतो नृणाम् । तथेत्युक्त्वा सहस्राक्षोऽध्यापयामास तं मुनिम् ||३२||
मुनीन्द्र इन्द्रतः साङ्गमायुर्वेदमधीत्य सः । अभिनन्द्य तमाशीर्भिराजगाम पुनर्महीम् ।।३३।।

32-33. ‘Please teach me the discipline of Ayurveda’. There upon Indra started teaching of the same to the seer. The seer Atreya learnt from him all the eight branches of Ayurveda including; Internal medicine (Kayacikitsa); Paediatrics (Kaumārabhritya); Psychological medicine (Grahacikitsā bhūtavidya); E.N.T. & Ophthalmology (Sālākyatantra); Surgery ( Salya tantra); Toxicology (Agada tantra); Rejuvenative Sciences (Rasāyana tantra); Science of aphrodisiacs (Vājīkarana). Thereafter he blessed the God of gods and returned to the earth.

अथात्रेयो मुनिश्रेष्ठो भगवान्करुणाऽऽकरः । स्वनाम्नाः संहितां चक्रे नरवर्गानुकम्पया ||३४||
ततोऽग्निवेशं भेडञ्च जातूकर्णं पराशरम् । क्षीरपाणिञ्च हारीतमायुर्वेदमपाठयत् ।।३५।।

34-35. After that the most kind and the jewel among the seers, God Atreya, for the great benefit of the mankind wrote a work called Atreya Samhitā. Thereafter, he taught Ayurveda to the six sanity persons named Agniveś, Bhela, Jātukarṇa, Parāśara, Kṣīrapāni and Hārīt.

तन्त्रस्य कर्ता प्रथममग्निवेशोऽभवत्पुरा । ततो भेडादयश्चक्रु स्वं स्वं तन्त्रं कृतानि च ।। ३६ ।।
वयामासुरात्रेयं मुनिवृन्देन वन्दितम् । श्रुत्वा च तानि तन्त्राणि हृष्टोऽभूदत्रिनन्दनः ।।३७।।
यथावत्सूत्रितंदृष्ट्वा प्रहृष्टा मुनयोऽभवन् । दिवि देवर्षयो देवाः श्रुत्वा साध्विति चाब्रुवन् ।।३८।।

36-38. First of all Agniveś, out of them composed an Ayurvedic text by his name. Following him seers like Bheda also authored medical texts under their respective names. They narrated about their respective texts before the great seer God Atreya. The seer became very pleased to listen to their text and in turn the authors also got delighted. The Gods of heaven expressed their happiness on the accomplishments of these authors.

भरद्वाजप्रादुर्भाव

एकदा हिमवत्पार्श्वे दैवादागत्य सङ्गताः । मुनयो बहवस्तेषां नामभिः कथयाम्यहम् ।।३९।।
भरद्वाजो मुनिवर: प्रथमं समुपागतः । ततोऽङ्गिरास्ततो गर्यो मरीचिर्भृगुभार्गवौ ।।४०।।
पुलस्त्योऽगस्तिरसितोवसिष्ठः सपराशरः । हारीतो गौतमः सांख्यो मैत्रेयश्च्यवनोऽपि च ।। ४१।।
जमदग्निश्च गार्ग्यश्च कश्यपः काश्यपोऽपि च । नारदो वामदेवश्च मार्कण्डेयः कपिञ्जलः ।।४२।।
शाण्डिल्यःसहकौण्डिन्यः शाकुनेयश्च शौनकः । आश्वलायनसांकृत्यौ विश्वामित्रः परीक्षकः । । ४३ ।।
देवलो गालवो धौम्यः काप्यकात्यायनावुभौ । काङ्कायनो वैजवापः कुशिको बादरायण ।।४४।।
हिरण्याक्षश्चलौगाक्षिः शरलोमा च गोभिलः । वैखानसा बालखिल्यास्तथैवान्ये महर्षयः ।। ४५।।
ब्रह्मज्ञानस्य निधयो यमस्य नियमस्य च । तपसस्तेजसा दीप्ता हूयमाना इवाग्नयः ।।
सुखोपविष्टास्ते तत्र सर्वे चक्रुः कथामिमाम् ।। ४६ ।।

39-46. Emergence of Bhāradvāja:

Once upon a time, many saints and seers assembled in a region that was located at foot of the great Himalayas. Now I recall the names of these great personalities: Bhāradvāja, Angirā, Garg, Marichi, Bhrigu, Bhārgava, Pulastya, Agasti, Asit and Parāśara along with the seers Vaśishtha, Harit, Gautam, Sankhya, Maitreya, Cyavana, Jamadagni, Gārgi, Kaśyapa, Kāśyapa, Nada, Vāmadeva, Mārkandeya, Kapiñjala, Kaundinya as well as Sandilaya, Sakuneya, Saunak, Asvalāyana, Sankritya, Viśvamitra, Parikşaka, Devala, Galava, Dhaumya, Kapya,Kātyāyana, Kankgkāyana, Vaijavāpa, Kushika, Bādarāyaņa, Hirakanyaksa, Laugaksi, Saraloma, Gobila Vaikhānas, and Balakhilya as well as many others.

These saints discussed among themselves sitting in the holy region under the Himalayas that is illuminated like a fire generated by austerities and holy rituals and sacrifices.

धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाणां मूलमुक्तं कलेवरम् । तच्च सर्वार्थसंसिद्ध्यै भवेद्यदि निरामयम् ।।४७ ।।
तपःस्वाध्यायधर्माणां ब्रह्मचर्यव्रतायुषाम् । हत्तर: प्रसृता रोगा यत्र तत्र च सर्वतः ।।४८ ।।

47-48. The body is but the basis of all the four essential pursuits of life, namely Dharma (religions duties), Artha (professional, economic duties), Kāma (reproductive and sensual pursuits) and Moksa (emancipation or the eternal peace). These pursuits could be achieved only through a body that is sound in health. On the other hand the diseases are spread every here and there in the world to disturb life and tarnish the attempts to conduct the prescribed austerities, studies, and religions rituals.

रोगाः कार्यकरा बलक्षयकरा देहस्य चेष्टाहरादृष्टा इन्द्रियशक्तिसंक्षयकराः सर्वाङ्गपीडाकराः । धर्मार्थाखिलकाममुक्तिषुमहाविघ्नस्वरूपाबलात्प्राणानाशुहरन्तिसन्तियदितेक्षेमंकुतः प्राणिनाम् ।।४९ ।। तत्तेषांप्रशमायकश्चनविधिश्चिन्त्योभवद्धिर्बुधै योग्यरित्यभिधाय संसदि भरद्वाजं मुनिं तेऽब्रुवन् ।
त्वं योग्योभगवन् सहस्रनयनंयाचस्वलब्धंक्रमादायुर्वेदमधीत्ययंगदभयान्मुक्ताभवामो वयम् ।।५०।।

49-50. These diseases make the human beings weak, poor in strength and vigour. They destroy the power of the senses; create pain in the body. They stop the activities related to the four pursuits as above and remove out the life painfully and forcefully. So long as there are diseases all around in the world, how can human beings remain comfortable? Therefore, to remove and cure such diseases, let us think measures to be taken. The seers assembled in the gathering approached to saint Bhāradvāja and requested him to bring the knowledge of Ayurveda from the heaven. The seers expressed their desire to study the discipline one by one so that they are freed from fear of the various diseases.

इत्थं स मुनिभिर्योग्यैः प्रार्थितो विनयान्वितैः । भरद्वाजो मुनिश्रेष्ठो जगाम त्रिदशालयम् ।।५१ ।।
तत्रेन्द्र भवनं गत्वा सुरर्षिगणमध्यगम् । दृष्टवान् वृत्रहन्तारं दीप्यमानमिवानलम् ।। ५२ ।।
दृष्ट्वैव स मुनिं प्राह भगवान्मघवा मुदा । धर्म्मज्ञ ! स्वागतं तेऽथ मुनिं तं समपूजयत् ।।५३ ।।

51-53. When the seers thus humbly approached seer Bhāradvāj he went to the heaven and reached the court of Indra, the God of gods. He behold Indra who was shining like the fire and who was surrounded by the heavenly seers. On seeing Bhāradvāj, Indra welcomed his arrival and worshiped the saint properly.

सोऽभिगम्यजयाशीर्भिरभिनन्द्य सुरेश्वरम् । ऋषीणां वचनं सम्यक् श्रावयामास तत्त्वतः ।।५४।।
व्याघयो हि समुत्पन्नाः सर्वप्राणिभयङ्कराः । तेषां प्रशमनोपायं यथावद्वक्तुमर्हसि ।। ५५ ।।
अपाठयन्मुनिं साङ्गमायुर्वेदं शतक्रतुः । जीवेद्वर्षसहस्राणि देहो नीरुङ् निशम्य यम् ।। ५६।।

54-56. There upon, Bhāradvāj greeted Indra and expressed blessing to him. He also told Indra about the desires of the seers and requested him to impart the learning of Ayurveda so that the mankind in the earth can treat and cure various diseases that made their life miserable. On listening to the seer Bhāradvāj Indra obliged him and taught him the discipline of Ayurveda along with its branches so that mankind can live a life thousand years long.

सोऽनन्तपारं त्रिस्कन्घमायुर्वेदं महामुनिः । यथावदचिरात्सर्वं बुबुधे तन्मना मुनिः ।।५७।।
तेनायुः सुचिरं लेभे भरद्वाजो निरामयम् । अन्यानपि मुनींश्चक्रे नीरुजः सुचिरायुषः ।।५८ ।।

57-56. Taking lessons from Indra with due attention Bhāradvāj quickly and thoroughly learnt the discipline of Ayurveda which has three foundations in shape of causes, identification and treatment (of the diseases). Thus Bhāradvāj obtained long life and in turn, he also helped people attain a long life as well.

तत्तन्त्रजनितज्ञानचक्षुषा ऋषयोऽखिलाः । गुणान्द्रव्याणि कर्माणि दृष्ट्वा तद्विधिमाश्रिताः ।। ५९।।
आरोग्यं लेभिरे दीर्घमायुश्च सुखसंयुतम् । आयुर्वेदोक्तविधिनाऽन्येऽपि स्युर्मुनयो यथा ||६० ||

59-60. The seers also got benefited by learning Ayuveda from Bhāradvājas they utilized the narratives of the discipline in terms of materia medica and the like. Following the methods, rules and regulations of the Ayurveda the seers were thus able to continue a long life free of diseases and full of comforts.

चरकप्रादुर्भाव:-

यदा मत्स्यावतारेण हरिणा वेद उद्धृतः । तदा शेषश्च तत्रैव वेदं साङ्गमवाप्तवान् ।। ६१ ।।
अथर्वान्तर्गतं सम्यगायुर्वेदं च लब्धवान् । एकदा स महीवृत्तं द्रष्टुं चर इवागतः ।।६२।।
तत्र लोकान्गदैर्ग्रस्तान्व्यथया परिपीडितान् । स्थलेषु बहुषु व्यग्रान् म्रियमाणांश्च दृष्टवान् ।। ६३ ।।
तान्दृष्ट्वाऽतिदयायुक्तस्तेषां दुःखेन दुःखितः । अनन्तश्चिन्तयामास रोगोपशमकारणम् ।।६४।।
सञ्चिन्त्य स स्वयं तत्र मुनेः पुत्रो बभूव ह । प्रसिद्धस्य विशुद्धस्य वेदवेदाङ्गवेदिनः ।।६५।।

61-65. Emergence of Caraka:

It has been well known that once upon a time, the God Vișnu has saved the four Vedas by assuming an incarnation called Matsyavatāra. During that period itself, the God Seș had obtained the learning of these Vedas that include the Atharva Veda as well. Thus he imbibed the discipline of Ayurveda, which is, but essence of the Atharva Veda. Once, God Ses came to the earth and moved around like a spy to take care of the human beings. He was very sad by heart to see people being pained and facing misery on account of countless diseases every here and there. The God Śeș started thinking and discussing the matter by himself. Then after considering the problem he decided to take birth among the human beings. He thus became son of a gentleman named Visuddha who was accomplished in all the Vedas and various kinds of grammatical science and the like.

यतश्चर इवायातो न ज्ञातः केनचिद्यतः | तस्माच्चरकनाम्नाऽसौ ख्यातश्च क्षतिमण्डले ।। ६६ ।।
स भाति चरकाचार्य्यो देवाचार्यो यथा दिवि | सहस्रवदनस्यांशो येन ध्वंसो रुजां कृतः ।। ६७ ।।
आत्रेयस्यमुनेः शिष्या अग्निवेशादयोऽभवन् । मुनयो बहवस्तैश्च कृतं तन्त्रं स्वकं स्वकम् ।।६८।।
तेषांतन्त्राणि संस्कृत्य समाहृत्य विपश्चिता । चरकेणात्मनो नाम्ना ग्रन्थोऽयं चरकः कृतः ।।६९।।

66-69. Since the God has appeared and moved on the earth in guise of a ‘Cara’ (i.e. a spy ) he became famous by the name of Caraka (literally, ‘a wandering saint’). Thus Caraka is none but the incarnation of God Śes himself. He rightly became very respectable among the seer physicians of the earth as God Brihaspati is regarded among the seers of the heaven. There had appeared many seers and physicians like Agniveś and others before Caraka. Therefore, Caraka collated and edited their texts and prepared a scripture on Ayurveda that became famous as Caraka Samhita by his name.

धन्वन्तरिप्रादुर्भाव:

एकदा देवराजस्य दृष्टिर्निपतिता भुवि । तत्र तेन नरा दृष्टा व्याधिभिर्भृशपीडिताः ।।७०।।
तान्दृष्ट्वा हृदयं तस्य दयया परिपीडितम् । दयाऽऽर्द्रहृदयः शक्रो धन्वन्तरिमुवाच ह ।।७१।।
धन्वन्तरे ! सुरश्रेष्ठ ! भगवन् ! किञ्चिदुच्यते । योग्यो भवसि भूतानामुपकारपरो भव ।।७२ ।।
उपकाराय लोकानां केन किं न कृतं पुरा । त्रैलोक्याधिपतिर्विष्णुरभून्मत्स्यादिरूपवान् ।।७३।।
तस्मास्वं पृथिवीं याहि काशीमध्ये नृपो भव । प्रतीकाराय रोगाणामायुर्वेदं प्रकाशय ।।७४।।
इत्युक्त्वा सुरशार्दूलः सर्वभूतहितेप्सया । समस्तमायुषो वेदं धन्वन्तरिमुपादिशत् ।।७५ ।।

70-75. Emergence of Dhanvantari:

Once upon a time God Indra came to see condition of the human beings on earth. He saw them in miserable condition owing to various kinds of diseases. He was very moved by this. He approached God Dhanvantarī and requested him to go to the earth and popularize the medical science among the mankind. Indra recalled that for the benefit of mankind even God Vişnu had taken the shape and life of a fish during the Matsyavatāra. Indra suggested Dhanvantarī to go to the city Kāśīpurī and become the king of the city there. Thus for the benefit of mankind, Indra taught Dhanvantari the discipline of Ayurveda.

अधीत्य चायुषो वेदमिन्द्राद्धन्वन्तरिः पुरा । आगत्य पृथिवीं काश्यां जातो बाहुजवेश्मनि ।।७६।।
नाम्नातु सोऽभवत्ख्यातो दिवोदास इति क्षितौ । बाल एव विरक्तोऽ भूच्चचार सुमहत्तपः ।।७७।।
यनेन महता ब्रह्मा तं काश्यामकरोन्नृपम् । ततो धन्वन्तरिलकिः काशिराजोऽभिधीयते ।।७८।।
हितायदेहिनां स्वीया संहिता विहिताऽमुना । अथ विद्यार्थिनो लोकान्संहितां तामपाठयत् ।।७९।।

76-79.Thus Dhanvantarī learnt the science of Ayurveda. He came to the earth and took birth in the royal family of the city of Kasi. He became famous by the name of Divodāsa. He reflected an otherworldly bent of mind and began practicing austerities. However, after great efforts Brahma prepared him to become the king of the city. Then he authored an Ayurvedic text called Dhanvantarī Samhita. Subsequently he imparted knowledge of this text to his students.

सुश्रुतप्रादुर्भावः

अंथ ज्ञानदृशा विश्वामित्रप्रभृतयोऽविदन् । अयं धन्वन्तरिः काश्यां काशिराजोऽयमुच्यते ।।८०।।
विश्वामित्रो मुनिस्तेषु पुत्रं सुश्रुतमुक्तवान् । वत्स ! वाराणसीं गच्छ त्वं विश्वेश्वरवल्लभाम् ।।८१।।
तत्रनाम्नादिवोदासःकाशिराजोऽस्ति बाहुजः । स हि धन्वन्तरिः साक्षादायुर्वेदविदां वरः ।।८२ ।।
आयुर्वेदं पठस्व त्वं लोकोपकृतिहेतवे । सर्वप्राणिदया तीर्थमुपकारो महामखः ।।८३।।
पितुर्वचनमाकर्ण्य सुश्रुतः काशिकां गतः । तेन सार्द्ध समध्येतुं मुनिसूनुशतं ययौ ।।८४ ।।

80-84. Emergence of Suśruta:

From their especial power of sight seers like Viśvāmitra came to know that the king Divodāsa is none but the incarnation of Dhanvantarī himself in guise of the king of Kāśi. There upon Viśvāmitra called up his son Suśruta and suggested him to go to Kāśī or Vārānasi (as the town is known for both these names) and meet Divodāsa for gaining the learning of Ayurveda for the benefit of mankind. As having a kind attitude towards the human beings and showing mercy to the needful is the best pilgrimage of life, the suggestion of Viśvāmitra convinced his son. Thus Suśruta, and along with his hundred other pupils who were sons of different seers marched to Vārānasī to learn the discipline of Ayurveda.

अथ धन्वन्तरि सर्वे वानप्रस्थाश्रमे स्थितम् । भगवन्तं सुरश्रेष्ठं गुनिभिर्बहुभिः स्तुत ।। ८५ ।।
काशिराजंदिवोदासं तेऽपश्यन्विनयान्विताः । स्वागतं च तदा चाह दिवोदासी यशोधनः ।।८।।
कुशलं परिपप्रच्छ तथाऽऽगमनकारणम् । ततस्ते सुश्रुतद्वारा कथयामासुरुत्तरम् ।।८७ ।।
भगवन्मानवान्दष्ट्वाव्याधिभिः परिपीडितान् । कन्दतोप्रियमाणांच जाताऽस्माकं हृदि व्यथा ||८८ ।।
आमयानां शमोपायं विज्ञातुं वयमागताः । आयुर्वेदं भवानस्मानध्यापयतु यत्नतः ।। ८९ ।।
अङ्गीकृत्य वचस्तेषां नृपतिस्तानुपादिशत् । व्याख्यातं तेन ते यत्लाज्जगृहुर्मुनयो मुदा ।।१०।।
काशिराजं जयाशीर्भिरभिनन्य मुदाऽन्विताः । सुश्रुताच्या सुसिन्दार्थाजग्मुर्गेहस्वकं स्वकम् ।। ९९ । ।
प्रथमं सुश्रुतस्तेषु स्वतन्त्रं कृतवान् स्फुटम् । सुश्रुतस्य सखायोऽपि पृथक्तन्त्राणि तेनिरे ।। १२ ।।
सुश्रुतेन कृतं तन्त्रं सुश्रुतं बहुभिर्यतः । तस्मात्तत्सद्भुतं नाम्ना विख्यातं क्षितिमण्डले ।।१३।

90-93. Convinced by the intention of Suśruta and the accompanying students, Divodāsa taught them about Ayurveda. The students also learnt the discipline with complete attention and diligence. Thereafter greeting the king with words like ‘may he ever emerge victorious’ the students returned to their respective homes. Suśruta, first among these students, authored a text on the discipline. Thereafter his fellow colleagues also composed various Ayurvedic texts. However, the most popular among such texts proved to be the one composed by Suśruta. This work is famous by the name Suśruta Samhitā.

अथ वाग्भटप्रादुर्भाव:-

ततो व्यतीते समये तु वाग्भटः सद्वैद्यवन्द्यो विदुषां वरेण्यः ।
प्रादुर्बभूवावनिमण्डले श्रीधन्वन्तरे साम्यमधिश्रयन् सन् ।।९४ । ।
पाण्डोः सुतानां प्रवरस्य राज्ञोयुधिष्ठिरस्यावितथप्रियस्य ।
आसीत्सभायां सुचिकित्सकत्वेनास्थापितो मानपुरःसरं सः ।।९५ ।।
तेन प्रबन्धा विविधा जनानांहितार्थिना साधुतया प्रणीताः ।
तेषां प्रसिद्धा बहुधेह संहिताऽष्टाङ्गेतिसंयुगृहृदयाभिधाना ।।९६ ।।
तां वाग्भटेत्याह्वतयापृथिव्यां श्रुतां विदन्ति स्म समस्तकोविदाः ।
सुसंगृहीतां चरकाच्च सुश्रुताद थोऽन्यतन्त्रेभ्य उदारचेतसा ।।१७।।
प्रदर्शितं तत्र महच्च कौशलंचिकित्सिते कर्मणि वाग्भटेन ।
तथाऽपि सर्वं जगदेतदेवाधिकं बभूवोपकृतं यथार्थम् ।। ९८ । ।

94-98. Emergence of Vāghbhatta:

Some time after Suśruta passed away, emerged the great physician Vāgbhaṭṭa who was rightly compared to the God Dhanvantarī himself. He was appointed to the court of Yudhiṣṭhara who was the eldest brother of the famous Pāndavas and who was widely known for his truthfulness. Vagbhaṭṭa organized various Ayurvedic scriptures and authored the great text called Astanga Hridaya Samhita.

The text became famous under the name of Vagbhaṭṭa among the wise physicians. This work has been developed on the basis of the texts of Caraka and Suśruta. This work Astanga Hridaya is a great text in the world of Ayurveda. It has caused tremendous support for the entire mankind.

इति भैषज्यरत्नावल्यामायुर्वेदावतारप्रकरणं प्रथमं समाप्तम् ।।१।।
इति विद्योतिनी भाषाटीकायामायुर्वेदावतारप्रकरणम् ।।१।। –

End of the Chapter 1 of Bhaiṣajya Ratnāvalī with Commentary.

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