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Home » Chapter 2 – ShodhanMaran Prakaran – Refinement and Incineration of Various Materials

Chapter 2 – ShodhanMaran Prakaran – Refinement and Incineration of Various Materials

अथ शोधनमारणप्रकरणम् – २

Chapter 2 – ShodhanMaran Prakaran – Refinement and Incineration of Various Materials


रसेन्द्रः पारदः सूतः सूतराजश्च सूतकः । शिवतेजो रसः सप्त नामान्येवं रसस्य तु ।। १ ।।

1. Synonyms of Rasa (Mercury) (Hg = Hydrargyrum): The mercury is called by seven names : Rasendra, Pārada, Sūta, Sūtaraja, Sūtaka, Sivāteja and Rasa.

रसलक्षणम्अन्तः सुनीलोबहिरुज्ज्वलोयो मध्याह्नसूर्य्यप्रतिमप्रकाशः ।
शस्तोऽ थधूम्रः परिपाण्डुरश्चचित्रोनयोज्योरसकर्मसिद्धौ ।। २ ।।

2. Characteristics of Rasa:

The best medicinally useful mercury is one that is blue from within, bright from the exterior, and as white as the noontime sun. On the other hand, such kind of mercury that is smoky in colour, yellowish in texture or having spots here and there, is not fit for medicinal purpose.

Note – The qualities of perfect pārada (mercury) as suggested by modern scientists resemble the characteristics defined in the old texts. However, the old texts refer to these characteristics in a codified (sūtra) language.


नागो वङ्गो मलो वह्निश्चञ्चल्यञ्च विषं गिरिः असह्याग्निर्महादोषा निसर्गात्परदे स्थिताः ।।३।।
ब्रणं कुष्ठं तथा जाड्यंदाहं वीर्य्यस्य नाशनम् । मरणं जडतां स्फोटं कुर्वन्त्येते क्रमान्नृणाम् ।।४।। तस्माद्रसस्य संशुद्धिं विदध्याद्धिषजां वरः । शुद्धोऽयममृतं साक्षाद्दोषयुक्तो रसो विषम् ||५||

3-5. Demerits of Rasa:

There are eight kinds of imperfections in the mercury by nature. These demerits include : being contaminated by metals called nāga, vanga and dirts; being flammable and mercurial (loco mobile), containing poisonous substances like arsenic and antimony; and being. unable to face high temperature (it gets vaporized in above 350 centigrade of temperature ). These effects can generate such conditions as (in sequence to the above) wounds, kuştha (skin diseases including leprosy), numbness, burning sensation, loss of sukra (sperms), death, paralysis and boils. Thus the ideal physician must remove the natural imperfections of mercury thoroughly. The purified mercury is equal to the nectar while the impure one is no less harmful than poison itself.


दोषहीनो यदा सूतस्तदा मृत्युज्वरापहः । शुद्धोऽयममृतः साक्षाद् दोषयुक्तो रसो विषम् ।। ६ ।

6. Other opinion:

The mercury that has been purified and removed from all its inherent demerits is capable to destroy the fragility of old age, to control fever and to withhold the death itself. The pure mercury is nectar of the earth without doubt. On the other hand and at the same time, the imperfect mercury is poison itself.

दरदं तण्डुलस्थूलं कृत्वा मृत्पात्रके त्रिदिनम् । भाव्यं जम्बीररर्या वा रसैर्बहुधा ||७||

7. Now the process of extraction of mercury from the cinnabar (mercury ore) (darada) is described. One should coarsely powder the darada (so as it is reduced to the size of rice-grains) and keep the same in an earthen pot. This powder should be processed through bhāvanā method by treating it either along with the juice of jambīra lemon or the juice of căngerī leaves. (In a bhāvanā process, powdered form of given herb or medicine is mixed along with the prescribed liquid till it gets triturated. This is followed by the drying of the powder in shadow or under the sun as suggested). The powder of darada (mercury ore) should be repeatedly processed through bhāvanā method for no less than three days.

ततश्च जम्बीरधारिणाचाङ्गेयरसेनपरिप्लुतम् । कृत्वा स्थालीमध्ये निधाय तदुपरि कठिनीघृष्टम् ।।८।।

8. The bhāvanā – processed mercury ore grains should be kept in an earthen pot containing the juices of jambīra lemon and cāngerī leaves. The amount of juices should be sufficient enough to soak the mercury grains. The mouth of the earthen pot should be tightly closed. This pot should be then kept below another earthen pot filled with cold water. The joint of both the pots should be closely tightened with mud-smeared cotton-strips.

उत्तानंचारुशरावंतत्र त्रिंशद्वारं जलं देयम् । उष्णे हेयं तथैव तदूर्ध्वपातनेन निर्मलः शिवजः ।।९।।

9. The earthen pot having the coarse mercury ore grains treated in the juices of jambira lemon and căngeri leaves should be then heated till another pot kept over its mouth is warmed. When the water of the upper pot gets boiling, it should be removed and replaced by fresh cold water. This process of boiling and replacing water with fresh supply should be continued for no less than thirty times. Thereafter the mercury from the pot below should be obtained by sieving it through a piece of cotton. Finally, it should be washed with fresh water or kānji repeatedly. Now the mercury is procured.


शतं पञ्चाशतं वाऽपि पञ्चविंशद्दशैव च । पञ्चैकं वा पलञ्चैव पलार्द्धं कर्षमेव च ।। १० ।।
कर्षान्यूनो न कर्त्तव्यो रससंस्कार उत्तमः । प्रयोगेषु च सर्वेषु यथालाभं प्रकल्पयेत् ।।११।।

10-11. Difference of opinion:

One should purify the mercury in required amount only. One can use 100, 50, 25, 10, five, one or even half pala or one karsa worth of mercury for incineration. For incineration process the amount of mercury should not be less than one karṣa. It is, however, best to take pārada or mercury as required for immediate use.


रसोनस्वरसैः सूतो नागवल्लीदलोत्थितैः । त्रिफलायास्तथा क्वाथे रसो मर्द्यः प्रयत्नतः ।।१२।।
ततस्तेभ्यः पृथक् कृत्वा सूतं प्रक्षाल्य काञ्जिकैः । सर्वदोषविनिर्मुक्तं योजयेद् रसकर्म्मसु ।।१३।।

12-13. Difference of opinion:

The mercury should be thoroughly macerated along with the juice of garlic, betel leaves as well as along with the decoction of triphala herbs. Following this, the parada should be separated and washed with kanji. Mercury thus obtained is fit to be used for medicinal purpose.


श्वेतद्वीपे पुरा देव्याः क्रीडन्त्याः प्रसृतं रजः । क्षीराणवे तु स्नाताया दुकूलं रजसाऽन्वितम् ।
धौतं तत् सलिले तस्मिन् गन्धको गन्धवत् स्मृतः ।।१४।।

14. Origin of Sulphur (S = Sulphur):

As regards the origin of sulphur, it is said that once upon in older time, Goddess Parvati was playing merrily (having kriḍa) in an island called Sveta Dvipa (literally, ‘white island’). While playing she got her menses and she thus menstruated in the island. Following this, she bathed herself in the Kṣīra Sagar (the heavenly ‘Ocean of Milk’) and washed her garments containing stains of the menstruated blood. Sulphur originated out of this washing.

Discussion: At the outset the above narrative sounds a banal description of the origin of sulphur. However, there has been tendencies among the ancients who described scientific events through popular symbols. It may be argued that the term śveta dvīpa above would signify none other but the island of Sicily. Probably the matter was first noticed in this island only. The term kṛidā above could also mean churning of the earth. The Goddess Pârvati can be symbol of earth herself. Some of the scholars argue that using these symbols a scientific and objective analysis regarding origin of sulphur has been presented by the great author of present book.


रक्तो हेमक्रियासूक्तः पीतश्वेतौ रसायने । व्रणादिलेपने श्वेतः कृष्णः श्रेष्ठः सुदुर्लभः ।।१६।।

15-16. On types of sulphur:

Depending on its respective colours, sulphur can be classified into four types including the red, yellow, black and white sulphur. While using for the incineration (sanskār) of gold, one should use the red sulphur. For preparing rasāyaṇa or tonics, the yellow variety of sulphur is best. For treating wounds, boils, etc., the white sulphur is employed. The black sulphur is rarely obtained, nonetheless it is most effective for all these purposes.

Discussion – The white and yellow sulphur is found in natural conditions. Out of these, the yellow one is famous all around by the name of Amalasāra and this is a perfect kind of sulphur. The white sulphur is not just sulphur only but is a natural compound of the same as well as other ingredients. One can recognize it as gypsum (Godanti) as well. This material is used variously and the so-named Plaster of Paris is none but the powdered form of gypsum. The ash of same gypsum is used in plastering the fractured bones and in preparing pots (mūsā, sarāva and the like) that are employed in incineration of iron and other metals. The other two kinds of sulphur as described above are not natural. They are obtained through certain artificial methods and through various degrees of heating. As a matter of fact, the red and black kinds of sulphur revert back to natural yellowish color once their heating is undone. In past, there might have been methods to retain the artificial red or black colour of the material in context. But today, no such method is known.

अशुन्दगन्धकदोषा:अशुद्धगन्धः कुरुते तु तापं कुष्ठं भ्रमं पित्तरुजां करोति ।
रूपं बलंवीर्य्यसुखंनिहन्तितस्मात्सुशुद्धोविनियोजनीय ।।१७।।

17. Demerits of impure Gandhaka (sulphur):

Impure gandhaka (sulphur) produces burning sensations, kuştha (skin diseases including leprosy), giddiness and pitta-generated disorders. It can also damage the get-up, strength and vigour of the body. Therefore, one must use only purified form of this material.

18. Synonyms of Gandhaka (sulphur):

गन्धको गन्धपाषाणः शुकपुच्छः सुगन्धकः । सौगन्धिकः शुल्वरिपुः पामारिर्नवनीतकः ।।१८।।

In Sanskrit, the sulphur is referred by eight names. These names include Gandhaka, Gandhapāṣāṇa, Sukapuccha, Sugandhaka, Saungandhika, Sulvaripu, Pāmāri and Navanītaka.

Observation: Gandhapāṣaṇa- Literally ‘a stone that smells nicely’. This name has been attributed to sulphur as it is found in shape of stone-pieces and it smells strongly.

Sukapuccha- Since it is fragile as the tail (puccha) of a parrot (śuka) it has been named as such.

Sulvaripu- Literally ‘antagonistic (ripu) to copper (sulva)’. The sulphuric acid melts down the metal in question and hence sulphur is named so.

Pāmāri- Literally ‘destroyer (ari) of scabies (pāma)’. This name of sulphur only signifies its medicinal quality.

Navanītaka- Since one form of the sulphur is found in collided shape, it can be equaled to the form of butter, i.e. Navanīta, hence this nomenclature.


लौहपात्रे विनिक्षिप्य घृतमग्नौ प्रतापयेत् । तप्ते घृते तत्समानं क्षिपेद् गन्धकजं रजः ।।१९।। विद्रुतंगन्धकंदृष्ट्वा दुग्धमध्ये विनिक्षिपेत् । एवं गन्धकशुद्धिः स्यात् सर्वरोगेषु योजयेत् ।।२०।।

19-20. Purifying the Sulphur:

One should heat up ghrita (i.e. clarified butter) in an iron saucepan. Add the equal quantity of sulphur in powdered form to the warm ghṛita. When the sulphur gets melted pour it into milk kept in a separate vessel. Finally one has to separate the sulphur by sieving the substance. This sulphur is fit for medicinal purposes.

Discussion- One should repeat this process for no less than three times. Thereupon, one should coarsely powder the sulphur thus obtained and get the same washed with hot water after each process. However if the sulphur gets crystallized on its own one simply does not need to coarsely powder it.


शुद्धगन्धोहरेद्रोगान् कुष्ठमृत्युज्वरादिकान् । अग्निकारी महानुष्णो वीर्य्यवृद्धिं करोति च ||२१||

21. The characteristics of purified sulphur:

The purified form of sulphur is capable to remove the disease kuṣṭha (skin diseases including leprosy) and fever. It can withhold the arrival of old age symptoms and death. It increases the appetite and the vigour and is very hot in properties and effect.

Discussion – The dose of sulphur should be taken between 125 mg. to 1 gm.


वज्रशोधनम्व्याघ्रीकन्दगतं वज्रं दोलायन्त्रे विपाचयेत् । अहोरात्रात् समुद्धृत्य हयमूत्रेण सेचयेत् ।।२२।।
वज्रीक्षीरेण वा सिञ्चेत् कुलिशं विमलं भवेत् ।।२३।।

22-23. The method of Vajra (diamond)-incineration (Diamond = C): One should cook the pieces of diamond in a Dolā Yantra after keeping these pieces inside the root-stems of Vyāghrīkanda. The process of cooking in Dolā Yantra should continue for one day and one night. Following that, one should remove out the diamond and soak it in the latex of vajṛī (snuhī) or the urine of a horse. Thus processed, diamond gets purified without any demerit.


त्रिः सप्तकृत्वसन्तप्तं खरमूत्रेण सेचयेत् । मुद्गरैस्तालकं पिष्ट्वा तद्गोले कुलिशं क्षिपेत् ।।२४।।
प्रध्मातं वाजिमूत्रेण सिक्तं पूर्वक्रमेण तु । भस्मीभवति तद्वज्रं वज्रवत् कुरुते तनुम् ।।२५।।

24-25. Māraṇa of Vajra:

One should heat up the diamond and cool it down by soaking it into the urine of ass. This process should continue for twenty one times. Thereafter, the diamond should be formed into shape of a ball. Subsequently coat it by kalka of tālaka (haratāla). The ball thus prepared should be heated up for twenty one times by cooling it down in intervals through soaking it up with horse-urine in sequence. Thus the diamond is transformed into shape of bhasma (oxydum). It consumed, this diamond-ash (hīraka bhasma) makes one’s body as strong as vajra itself.


आयुष्यं सौख्यजननं बलरूपप्रदं तथा । रोगघ्नं मृत्युहरणं वज्रभस्म भवत्यलम् ।। २६ ।।

26. Characteristics of purified vajra:

The diamond oxydum (hiraka bhasma) is capable to offer a long life and happiness, to promote vigour and body get-up and to remove diseases and to halt a pre-mature death.

Discussion- Depending upon the individual in context, the use of hīraka bhasma should range 4 mg. to 8 mg. The method to prepare doses of the hīraka bhasma- 125 mg. measure of bhasma should be mixed into 4 gm. of rasasindūra or some similar material. One can take this mix in doses of 125-250 mg.


वैक्रान्तं वज्रवच्छोध्यं ध्मातं तद्धयमूत्रके । हिमं तद्भस्म संयोज्यं वज्रस्थाने विचक्षणैः ।। २७ ।।

27. The process of purifying Vaikranta (Tourmaline) (Tourmaline = NaR²* Al‚¸SiO₂(H‚F), where R = Fe²+, Mg, or (Al+Li): 2+

 One should purify vaikrānta by using the same process as described in case of vajra (diamond) above. Thereafter, the material should be heated up and cooled down by using horse-urine in sequence. Finally it should be allowed to cool down before being used. The experienced physicians use this material in place of vajra.

Discussion : The meaning of term ‘vaikranta’ is debated. Some argue that since it is capable and effective as vajra and as such it holds light-rays (vaikranti) only to remove diseases, it is called as vaikranta. However, many other scholars, particularly the metallurgists believe that vaikrānta is name of a raw ore only. The author of Rasajala Nidhi suggests that since it deforms (vikṛintayanti) the iron it is called ‘deformer’, i.e. Vaikranta.

As a matter of fact it is only a deformed kind of vajra. Small wonder, it is also named as jirņavajra (‘the old vajra’), Ksudra Vajra (the lesser type of vajra’), and Kuvajra (‘the inferior kind of vajra’).


अथाभ्रशोधनम् तत्राभ्रपर्यायाःअभ्रकं गिरिजाबीजममलं गगनाह्वयम् ||२८|| –

28. Incineration of Abhra i.e. Mica and its synonyms:

The mica is referred to as these names in Sanskrit: Abhraka, Girijābīj, Amala and all synonyms of the term Ākāśa.

Discussion- The names like Abhraka, Abhra or Gagaṇāhvaya signify the ether or space. Probably considering the space between various layers of mica pieces the scholars named this mineral as such. The term Girijābījam probably dignifies the fact that mica is found in the hills (Giri).

प्रशस्ता अभ्रम

तत्रकृष्णाभ्रके वज्रं पीतात्मनि तु ग्राहिकम् । सितात्मके तारकं स्याद्भीरुकं रक्तके वरम् ।।२९।।

29. Characteristics of perfect abhraka:

The mica type called Vajrabhra is best among the black mica pieces. The Grāhika type is best among the yellow mica-ore. The Tāraka kind is best among the white mica, while the one called Bhīruka is the best among the red mica.

सुप्रशस्तं कठोराङ्गं गुरु कज्जलसन्निभम् । यन्न शब्दायते वह्नौ नैवोच्छूनं भवेदपि ।
सदाकरसमुद्भूतं वज्रेति प्रथितं घनम् ।।३०।।

30. The mica piece that is bright, strong, heavy in weight, blackish like kajjala in colour is fine in quality. The pieces that do not produce any sound nor blow up from within when heated and that have been obtained through best of the mines, are fine and good quality mica, called Vajarābhraka.

पिनाकं दर्दुरं नागं वज्रञ्चेति चतुर्विधम् । ध्मातमभ्रं दलचयं पिनाकं विसृजत्यलम् ।।३१।।
फूत्कारं भुजगः कुर्याद् दर्दुरं भेकशब्दवत् । चतुर्थञ्च वरं ज्ञेयं न वह्नौ विकृतिं व्रजेत् ||३२||
कुष्ठप्रदं पिनाकं स्याद्दर्दुरं मरणप्रदम् । नागं देहगतं नित्यं व्याधिं कुर्याद् भगन्दरम् ||३३ ||
रसे रसायने चैव योज्यं वज्राभ्रकं प्रिये ! । तस्माद्वज्राभ्रकं ग्राह्यं व्याधिवार्द्धक्यमृत्युजित् ।। ३४।।

31-34. Krisnābhraka type of mica can be further classified into four categories each named as Pināka, Dardura, Nāga and Vajra, respectively. Pināka mica gets scattered on getting heated. Dardura (literally a frog) mica jumps like frog once put on fire. The Nāga (=a snake) variety of mica produces the ‘hissa’ sound on getting heated. But the Vajra mica would not get deformed and would not produce any sound. Thus the Vajra mica is the best one. The pinaka variety of mica may lead to the disease kuştha. The dadru variety may prove fatal while consuming the nāga type of mica would afflict the user with the disease bhagandara without doubt. Therefore, one should use only the vajra type of abhraka for medicinal recipes as well as for preparing a rejuvenating drug (rasāyaṇa).

Discussion – The mica can be first divided into four classes depending on their colours which are black, yellow, white and red. Further they are divided into four categories depending on their characteristics on getting heated. Thus the mica is of (4X4=) sixteen types in total. However, the Vajra type of black mica is the best among all these sixteen categories of the mineral.

अशुद्धाभ्रस्य दोषाः

अशुद्धाभ्रं निहन्त्यायुर्वर्द्धयेन्मारुतं कफम् । अहतं छेदयेद् गात्रं मन्दाग्निक्रिमिवर्द्धनम् ।।३५।।

35. Demerits of impure abhraka:

The impure mica causes loss of longevity and increases the vayu and kapha contents of the body. The un-incinerated mica can also penetrate into body tissues and can cause body-wounds and can increase worms in stomach. This is also capable to further the indisposition related to the loss of digestive power.


पादांशशालिसंयुक्तमभ्रकं कम्बलोदरे । त्रिरात्रं स्थापयेन्नीरे तत् क्लिन्नं मर्दयेद् दृढम् ।। ३६ ।।
कम्बलाद् गलितं श्लक्ष्णं वालुकारहितञ्च यत् । तद्धान्या भ्रमिति प्रोक्तमभ्रमरणसिद्धये ।। ३७ ।।

36-37. On the Dhanyabhara:

One should take four parts of pure vajrabhra mica and one part of sāli paddy and bundle their mix into a piece of blanket. This pack should be hanged deep into water for three days and nights. Then the pack (poṭṭali) containing mica and paddy should be rubbed and washed in water thoroughly. During the course of rubbing the pure mica pieces uncontaminated with sand particles would get sieved out through the blanket. One should collect the same and use it for incineration. This is also called Dhanyabhara owing to its association with ‘Dhanya’, that is paddy.


अगस्त्यपुष्पतोयेन पिष्टं शूरणकन्दगम् । गोष्ठभूमिगतं मासं जायते रससन्निभम् ।।३८।।

38. Difference of opinion:

One should prepare a kalka of mica pieces by churning them along with the juice of the flowers of agastya. This kalka should be put inside a piece of the śūrṇakanda (a giant vegetable species). This kanda is then buried undergruound for one month near the place where cows are kept chained. This process would make the mica a perfect one. It becomes as thin as the mercury.

– Note As a matter of fact this process is meant for melting of mica. It has been included here at this place probably due to some mistake.


धान्याभ्रकं दृढं मर्द्यमर्कक्षीरैर्दिनावधि । वेष्टयेदर्कपत्रेण चक्राकारन्तु कारयेत् ।। ३९ ।।
कुञ्जराख्ये पुटे दग्ध्वा सप्तवारान् पुनः पुनः । ततो वटजटाक्वाथैस्तद्वद्देयं पुत्रयम् ।।४० ।।
म्रियते नात्र सन्देहः सर्वयोगेषु योजयेत् ।। ४१ ।।

39-41. Māraṇa (incineration) of the abhraka:

Soak and triturate the Dhanyabhraka (mica) into the latex of arka, and properly macerate the same for one full day. Prepare a small ball of mica out of it. Wrap the ball with leaves of arka and put the pack inside a gajapuṭa and fire the same. Repeat this process of making mica ball and processing the same in gajaputa fire for seven consecutive times.

The same mica ball should be then triturated along with the decoction of the shoots of vata tree. Prepare a small ball of mica out of it. Wrap the ball with leaves of vata tree and put the pack inside a gajapuṭa and fire the same. Repeat this process of making mica ball and processing the same in gajapuța fire for thre consecutive times. Then only the abhraka bhasma becomes perfect and fit for medicinal uses.

मारिता भ्रस्य गुणा:निश्चन्द्रं मारितं व्योम रूपं वीर्यं दृढां तनुम् ।
कुरुते नाशयेन्मृत्युं जरारोगकदम्बकम् ।।४२।। –

42. Characteristics of purified abhraka:

The Niścandra (lusterless and with no metallic shine) variety of purified abhraka bhasma invigourates the get up and strength of the body and removes various ailments and halts premature death

Note -The Niscandra variety of mica is related to a particular and significant degree of its incineration. Unless this level of purity is achieved, the incineration process should not be discontinued.

Dose- The doses of abhraka bhasma range between 62-250 mg.


हरितालं तालमालं मालं शैलूषभूषणम् । पिञ्जकं रोमहरणं तालकं पीतमित्यपि ।।४३।।
तालकं पटलं पिण्डंद्विधा तत्राद्यमुत्तमम् ।।४४।।

43-44. Synonyms and different types of Haritālas (Orpiment) (Yellow Arsenic = As₂S):

Haritāla or Haratāla is a compound of sulphur and śankha vișa (arsenic).

Haritāla, Tāla, Āla, Māla, Śailūśabhūśan, Piñjaka, Romaharaṇa, Tālaka, and Pīta all these names are related to Haratāla. This is found in two shapes: Pāṭala and Pinda. The former is the best kind of Haratāla (orpiment).

Discussion- Sailuśabhūśan – This name to Haritāla denotes the fact that the hill-dwelling tribes (=Sailusa) sport this mineral as illustration (= bhuśan) to their body. The name ‘Romaharaṇa’ has been attributed to it owing to its capability to remove (i.e. haraṇa) the hairs of skin (=Roma). The names ‘Piñjaka’ and ‘Pīta’ denote the yellow colour of the Haratāla. The term ‘Talamala’ (it should be better taken as a combined word) seems to underline the various layers of the material in context.

अशुद्धहरितालस्य दोषाः

अशुद्धतालमायुर्ध्वं कफमारुतमेहकृत् । तापस्फोटाङ्गसङ्कोचान् कुरुते तेन शोधयेत् ।। ४५।।

45. Demerits of impure Haritala:

The impure haratāla reduces longevity and is capable to generate excessive kapha and vāyu. It can cause burning sensations, boils, prameha (urinary disorders including diabetes) and even body deformation. Therefore, one must use haratāla only after thoroughly purifying it.

Note- The natural haratāla (orpiment) contains the compound of arsenic, i.e. a kind of poison and sulphur. Thus, there can be no doubt that using it raw would produce harmful consequences.


शुद्धंस्यात् तालकं स्विन्नं कुष्माण्डसलिले ततः । चूर्णोदके पृथक् तैले तस्मिन् पूते न दोषकृत् ।।४६।।

46. Incineration of the Haritāla:

To purify haritala, one should reduce it to small pieces and swoon it through the Dolā Yantra by putting the pieces into juice of the pumpkin (kuṣmānḍa), in water of lime and in sesame oil for three hours each in continuation. This process purifies the drug.

Note- The swooning process should involve all the three liquids as suggested above for three hours each. However, it should be watched that no part of haritala gets melted into these liquids. Therefore, one should use only mild heating in the process, and the drug should be clean-washed properly through warm water each term so that the parts of liquids used are completely removed from haritāla substance.


अम्लरोलीजलैर्भाव्यं तालं द्वादशयामकम् । तथैव निम्बुनीरेण ततश्चूर्णोदकेन च ।।४७ ।।
प्रक्षाल्य शाल्मलीक्षारैर्द्विगुणैः खातमध्यगम् । विधाय कवचीयन्त्रं बालुकाभिः प्रपूरयेत् ।। ४८ ।। द्वादशप्रहरं पक्त्वा स्वाङ्गशीतञ्च चूर्णयेत् । खादयेद् रक्तिकामेकां कुष्ठश्लीपदशान्तये ।।४९ ।।

47-49. The process of obtaining haratāla bhasma:

Treat the purified haritāla through bhāvanā process by using the juice of śālmalī for 36 hours, the lemon juice for the next 36 hours and finally using the lime water for another 36 hours. Following this the drug should be hanged and kept under the alkali (kṣār) of cotton silk tree (śālmali) kept into a mūṣā that is placed inside an earthen pot. The space that remains unfilled after placing the mūṣā inside the pot should be filled with sand. This pot should be heated on stove for thirty-six hours. Subsequently allow the the pot and mūṣā to cool and to obtain natural temperature. Finally obtain the haritāla pieces from the mūṣā and powder them. Use this drug in doses of 125 mg. This purified drug cures the diseases like kustha (skin diseases including leprosy ) and elephantitis.

Note: These days the dose of haritāla is generally 32-64 mg.

सलक्षणमनःशिलायाः पर्यायाः-

मनःशिला च नैपाली शिलाह्वानागजिह्विका । मनोह्वा कुनटी गोणी करञ्जी करबीरिका ।
मनोहा त्वोपुष्पाभा शस्यते सर्वकर्म्मसु ||५० ।।

50. Characteristics and synonyms of the Manahsila (Red Arsenic) (Realgar As,S.,): =

Manahsilä, Naipali, Sila, Nagajihvikā, Manohvā, Kunați, Gonī, Karanji and Karavīrikā, these are all identical. The Mainsila (another synonym) which is red like the flowers of tvoḍra (guḍa hara) plant is good for use in all purposes.

Note – Manahsilā is another compound of arsenic poison and sulphur. It is also produced artificially. The manahsila that is to be purified should contain no part of stone in it. If stone- particles are noticed in the manahsilā, they should be removed by breaking the drug.

अशुद्धमनः शिलाया दोषा:

मनःशिलामन्दबलञ्चनूनंकरोतिजन्तोः शुभपाकहीना । मलन्तुबद्धंकुरुतेचनूनंसशर्करंकृच्छ्रगदंकरोति ।।५१।।

अश्मरीं मूत्रहृद्रोगमशुद्धा कुरुते शिला । मन्दाग्निं मलदुष्टिश्च शुद्धा सर्वरुजाऽपहा ।।५२।।

51-52. Demerits of impure Manahśilā:

The impure and unprocessed manahsilā (red arsenic) cause the loss of strength, loss of appetite, diseases like diahorrea, constipation, sarkara (i.e. urinary disorders including diabetes) and dysurea. It can also cause stone, heart diseases and contamination of mala (problems of gastrointestinal tract). On the other hand, the purified manahsila destroys all the indispositions and ailments.

Discussion:  Impure manahsila contains arsenic that cause heart problems. It also contains raw sulphur that produces loss of vigour and indigestion. The diseases like sarkara (i.e. urinary disorders including diabetes), dysurea and stone are affected through various stone particles in the compound in context. Since they appear alien to the body tissue of human beings, they are not absorbed in our body system and as consequence produce diseases.

मनः शिलाशोधनम्

जयन्ती भृङ्गराजोत्यैः रक्तागस्त्यरसैः शिला । दोलायन्त्रे दित्रं पाच्या यामं छागस्य मूत्रके । क्षालयेदारनालेन सर्वरोगेषु योजयेत् ।।५३ ।।

53. Purifying the Manahsila:

Obtain the juice of jayantī or bhṛingarāja or the red agastya or the urine of a goat. Boil the manahsilā particles in any of these liquids for one day or for three hours (in case of using goat-urine) in Dola Yañtra. Thereafter wash it through kanji. Now the manahsila is pure and fit for medicinal uses.

Note:  One can even use all the above liquids and boil the drug in each of them in sequence. However, it is essential that finally the manahsila be washed through kanji. The purified drug can be taken in ‘doses ranging between 8 mg. to 32 mg. depending on the age and strength of the individual in question. –


खर्परः परिसन्तप्तः सप्तवारान् निमज्जितः । निम्बुबीजरसे चान्तर्निर्मलत्वमवाप्नुयात् ।। ५४ ।।

54. Purification of Kharpara (Zinc Carbonate = ZnCO): Heat kharpara to red hot level and cool it down in lemon juice for seven consecutive terms. This process purifies the kharpara thoroughly.

तस्य मारणं गुणाश्च –

खर्परं पारदेनैव बालुकायन्त्रगं पचेत् । चूर्णीयत्वा दिनं यावच्छोभनं भस्म जायते ।
नेत्ररोगहर: क्लेदी क्षयहा खर्परो गुरुः ।।५५।।

55. On Incineration of kharpara (and its merits):

Take equal part of the purified kharpara powder and parada and macerate their mixture. Keep it in a mud smeared bottle and swoon it through Balukā Yantra for whole day. This process thus produces good quality of bhasma of kharpara. This can be profitably used in removing diseases like tuberculosis and various eye-related ailments. This Bhasma is heavy to digest and is kaledi property (i. e. having quality to exude sticky materials from the body).

Discussion: The glass bottle in which kharpara (zinc) powder is kept for incineration should remain open mouthed. The Bāluka Yañtra in which the glassware is kept should be heated so long as the pārada mixed in it gets evaporated and no pārada particles are noticed at the top of the bottle. The common dose of the kharpara bhasma ranges between 62-250mg.


तुत्थकं तु शिखिग्रीवं हेमसारं मयूरकम् ।।५६ ।।
अहिरिपुगलरूपंस्वाज्यगोदुग्धवर्णं- रविसदृशमथस्यादायसे घर्षितंयत् । शिखिरजतकपोतज्योतिरम्भोनिमग्नंभवति यदपि तुत्थं श्रेष्ठमुक्तं तदेव ।।

56. Synonyms of Tuttha (Copper Sulphate = CuSO,7H₂O) and the process of its purification and incineration (māraṇa):

The tutthak (copper sulphate) is also called by Tutathaka, Šikhīgrīva, Hemasāra and Mayūrakam in Ayurveda.

Note: This is a chemical compound obtained through processing the sulphuric acid over the copper. The copper sulphate that reflects colour similar to the neck of a peacock (mayūra) and is heavy in weight is best one.

गन्धकेनसमंतुत्थं तुत्थार्द्धेनार्द्धयामकम् । वान्तिभ्रान्ती यदा न स्तस्तदा सिद्धिं विनिर्दिशेत् ।।५७।।

57. Two parts of the tutha (copper sulphate) and one part of sulphur should be macerated together and mixed. This mix should be heated through the puta process for one hour and a half. Then one should taste the drug and if it does not produce vomiting, giddiness and the like store it for use. If taking a small quantity of the drug generates vomitting and giddiness, one should repeat the puța process till the desired level of the drug is achieved.

Note- Generally repeating the puta process for three times incinerate the tutha. The general dose of this purified drug is between 16-32 mg. If one has to vomit, one can consume greater amount, i.e. 250-625 mg.

This drug is very useful in treating pyorrhea and syphilis. This is also used externally to check various types of scabies and diseases of eye-leads.


तुत्थं सकटुकक्षारं कषायं विशदं लघु । लेखनं भेदि चक्षुष्यं कण्डूकृमिविषापहम् ।।५८ ।।

58. Characteristics of purified tutthaka:

The tuthaka (copper sulphate) has an unpleasing taste of alkali and is bitter. This is capable to penetrate into the body and to remove ringworms. It is easy to digest and very effective in curing eye-diseases, scabies and ailments generated by worms and poison, etc.


जम्बीरस्य रसैः स्विन्नो मेषशृङ्गीरसैस्तथा । रम्भातोयेन वा पाच्यं घस्रं विमलशुद्धये ।।५९।।

59. Incineration of Vimala (Iron Pyrite = Fe₂S)

The incineration of vimala (iron pyrite) is achieved by swooning it through Dola Yantra along with the juices of jambīra, meşaśṛīngi and the roots of banana in sequence for three consecutive days. Each juice should be used for one day sequence.


तत्रादौ तस्य नामानि – माक्षिके धातुमाक्षिकं तप्तं तापीसमुद्भवम् ।
गरुडो माक्षिकः पक्षी वृहद्वर्ण इति स्मृतः ।।६०।।

60. Purification of Māksika (Pyrite) and its The chalco pyrites is referred to in Ayurveda by such names as Mākṣika, Dhātu Mākşika, Tapta, Tapīsamudbhava, Garuda, Paksi, Vrihadvarna, etc.

Note – These names have been suggested to chalco pyrites on the basis of its qualities, shape, kinds and places of origin.

अस्य लक्षणम्

भङ्गेसुवर्णसङ्काशो मनाक् कृष्णच्छविर्बहिः । बृहद्वर्ण इति ख्यातो माक्षिक श्रेष्ठ उच्यते ।। ६१ ।।

61. Characteristics of purified māksika:

The piece of chalco pyrites that is clayish in color from exterior and golden color within is called Vrihadvarṇa. This is the best quality of pyrites.


मन्दाग्निं बलहनिञ्च व्रणं विष्टम्भगात्ररुक् । कुरुते माक्षिको मृत्युमशुद्धो नात्र संशयः ।। ६२ ।।

62. The impure māksika causes, without doubt the loss of appetite and strength. It produces scabies, constipation and body pains and it may even lead to death.


माक्षिकस्य त्रयो भागा भगैकं सैन्धवस्य च । मातुलुङ्गद्रवैर्वाऽथ जम्बीरोत्थद्रवैः पचेत् ।। ६३ ।। लौहपात्रेपचेत्तावल्लौहदर्व्या च चालयेत् । भासवर्णमयो यावत् तावच्छ्रध्यति माक्षिकम् ।। ६४।।

63-64. Purification of Māksika

Obtain pyrites in three parts and rock salt in one part and mix both of them. Put the mix into an iron saucepan and pour the juice of jambīra lemon over it so that the mix is drowned by it. The saucepan should be now kept over the stove and one should stirr the preparation repeatedly through an iron spoon. When the iron saucepan becomes as hot as to reflect bright red color, it should be removed from the stove. This process refines the pyrites.

शुद्धमाक्षिकस्य गुण

माक्षिकं तिक्तमधुरं मेहार्शः क्रिमिकुष्ठनुत् । कफपित्तहरं बल्यं योगवाहि रसायनम् ।। ६५ ।। 65. Characteristics of purified māksika:

The pyrites is bitter and sweet in taste but it removes the diseases like meha (i.e. urinary disorders including diabetes), piles, kustha (skin diseases including leprosy) and indispositions related to worms and the disorder of kapha and pitta. This is a yogavāhi substance and is an invigourating rasāyaṇa.

Note -The pyrites is taken in doses ranging between 62-250mg. in weight.


काशीशं धातुकाशीशं खेचरं दन्तरञ्जनम् । सकृभृङ्गाम्बुनस्विन्नं काशीशं निर्मलं भवेत् ।। ६६ ।।


सितं पीतं हरिच्छ्यामं काशीशं हि चतुर्विधम् । सितं हि वालुकापूर्व, पीतं पुष्पाद्यमेव च ।।
तदेव पद्मकाशीशं, कदाचित् कथ्यते जनैः । काशीशं हरिताद्यस्ति सुकरं सुलभं तथा ।।
काशीशं श्यामपूर्वकं, धातुकाशीशमुच्यते । मुक्तकाशीशसंज्ञञ्च तदेव ज्ञायते बुधैः ।।

66. Purification and synonyms of Kāśīśa (Green Vitriol) (Ferrous Sulphate = Fe SO, 7H,O):

The green vitriol is called by Kasiś, Dhātukāśiś, Khecara and Danta Ranjana.

It is purified simply by swooning it along with the juice of bhringa. Note – The vitriol is a compound that is obtained through processing sulphuric acid on iron. The Rasajalanidhi suggests four kinds of kāśiśa. The text Rasakāmdhenu suggests three kinds of vitriol: sukla, puspa and lauha, i.e. white, yellow and black in that order. The work Rasarṇava also refers to these three types. However, as per the modern views, vitriol is used only in two kinds: the white and the yellow varieties. The both are soluble in water. Therefore, mouth of the beaker containing vitriol and juice of bhringa should be strained with a filter paper after boiling the drug. The vitriol content thus get deposited over this paper. It should be gathered after drying the paper in sun or over a slow heat.


काशीशं निर्मलं स्निग्धं श्वित्रनेत्ररुजाऽपहम् । पित्तापस्मारशमनं रसवद् गुणकारकम् ।।६७।।

67. Characteristics of purified kāśiś:

The kāsis is oily and clean in composition. It is a very effective substance and capable to remove kuṣṭha (skin diseases including leprosy), several eye-diseases, pitta-disorder and epilepsy.

Note – Green vitriol should be taken in 62-250 mg. doses.

कान्तपाषाणनामानि –
राजपट्टं महापट्टं शिखिग्रीवं विराटकम् ।। ६८।।

68. Synonyms of kantapāṣāṇa i.e. magnet stone:

The magnet stone is referred to by such names in Ayurveda as Rājapaṭṭa, Mahapatta, Sikhigrīva, Virāṭaka and Kantapāṣāṇa.

Note- The iron magnet is obtained by melting the magnet stone. Pure magnet stone these days are found in America only.


चूर्णितं कान्तपाषाणं महिषीक्षीरसंयुतम् । विपचेदायसे पात्रे गोघृतेन समाहितम् ।।६९।।
लवणे च तथा क्षारे शोभाञ्जनरसे क्षिपेत् । अम्लवर्गस्य तोयेन दिनं धर्मे विभावयेत् ।।७०।।
तथैव दोलिकायन्त्रे द्विवारं पाचयेत् सुधीः । कान्तपाषाणशुद्धौ तु रसकर्म समाचरेत् ।।७१।।

69-71. Purification of kantapāṣāṇa:

One should cook the magnet stone in an iron pan after treating it with the buffalo milk and cow-ghrita. Following that the stone should be soaked into the juice of śobhānjana, alkali and lavaṇa. After that the stone should be processed through bhāvanā method (saturating it) along with some citrus juice. The following day, the stone pieces shoud be cooked twice along with the same kind of citrus juice. The magnet stone processed as such can be used for medicinal purposes.

Discussion: The cooking of stone could be continued for six hours instead of cooking it twice. The Rasamañjarī suggests that the cooking should continue for a daylong period. It also suggests using the three alkalis, namely savrjikṣāra, tankaṇakṣāra and yavakṣāra to treat the magnet stone. Similarly it prescribes use of three kinds of salt (rock-salt, sauvarcala and black-salt) in place of using only rock-salt, The Rasaratnākara also suggests use of three alkalis and salts.

After the stone is refined through above process, the same should be powdered using the incineration method prescribed for lauha bhasma. One can also use the puța process to purify the stone after macerating and saturating it in decoction of triphala herbs and cow-urine.

The dose of the bhasma of magnet stone is usually up to 250 mg. in measure.


पीताभाग्रन्थिला पृष्ठे दीर्घवृन्ता वराटिका । सार्द्धनिष्कभरा श्रेष्ठा निष्कभारा च मध्यमा ।।७२।। पादोननिष्कभारा च कनिष्ठा परिकीर्त्तिता । रसवैद्यैर्विनिर्दिष्टा सा वराटकसंज्ञिका ।।७३।।

72-73. Characteristics of Varāṭikās (Cowry = Ca CO₂.):

The good quality of Varāṭikā is one that is yellow in colour, moulded in the back and having a large size rim. The cowries that weigh about one and half nişka are best one while those weighing only one or three quarters of nişka are considered of medium and inferior qualities respectively.

Discussion – The cowries are available in three colours, namely, yellow, white and gray. The yellow cowries are best while the white and gray ones are considered of dium and inferior qualities respectively. One should try to use the best quality of Varāṭikā only and the use of the one below 3/4 nişka in weight must be avoided.

वराटिकायाः शुद्धिर्गुणाश्च –

वराटी काञ्जिके स्विन्ना यामाच्छुद्धिमवाप्युयात् ।
परिणामादिशूलघ्नी क्षयहा ग्रहणीहरा ।
कटूष्णा दीपनी वृष्या तिक्ता वातकफापहा ।।७४।।

74. Incineration and merits of the purified Varāṭikās:

The Varāṭikā is purified only when fomented along with kanji for three hours. The (powder of) cowries are effective in checking peptic ulcer, consumption, sprue and disorders related to vāta and kapha. This is also capable to promote digestive and aphrodisiac powers of the user as well. Its taste is bitter and it is hot in its effect.


नीलाञ्जनं चूर्णयित्वा जम्बीरद्रवभावितम् । दिनैकमातपे शुद्धं ततः कार्यषु योजयेत् ।।७५।।

75. Incineration of Nīlāñjana:

The nīlāñjana can be easily purified by saturating its powder in the juice of jambīra lemon and processing the recipe through bhāvanā method for one whole day and subsequently drying the preparation under sun for another day. Thus processed, nīlāñjana can be used for medicinal purposes.


हिङ्गुले हिङ्गुलुर्याति दरदः शुकतुण्डकः । रसगन्धकसम्भूतो हिङ्गुलो दैत्यरक्तकः ।।७६।।

76. Synonyms of hingula (red sulphide of mercury) (Cinnabar = HgS):

The synonyms of hiñgula include Hiñgulu, Darada, Sukatundaka, Rasa Gandhaka Sambhūta and Daitya Raktaka.

Note – The various synonyms of hiñgula denote the divergent qualities and characteristics of the matter. It is created by the compound of sulphur and mercury, hence its name Rasa (= mercury) Gandhaka (= sulphur) Sambhuta (= generated). Daitya Raktaka is a variety of hingula that is found along with coralline. The same matter is referred to as the steel ore today.


दरदं दोलिकायन्त्रे पक्वं जम्बीरजैर्द्रवैः । सप्तवारमजामूत्रैर्भावितं शुद्धिमेति हि ।।७७।।

77. Purification of hingula:

The hingula (red sulphide of mercury) is purified by swooning it in the juice of jambīra lemon in Dola Yantra followed by its bhāvanā treatment for seven times after getting it triturated in the goat-urine.

शुद्धहिङ्गुललक्षणं गुणाश्चबिम्ब्याभं हिङ्गुलं दिव्यं रसगन्धकसम्भवम् ।
मेहकुष्ठहरं रुच्यं बल्यं मेधाऽग्निवर्धनम् ।।७८ ।।

78. Characteristics and merits of purified hingula:

The best type of hiñgula produced by the compound of mercury and sulphur is as red in colour as is the bimbi fruit. The purified hiñgula removes the disease of meha (i.e. urinary disorders including diabetes) and kustha ( skin diseases. including leprosy ). It promotes the digestive power, intellect, strength and appetite.

Note – Its dose is between 62-125 mg.


तत्रादौ तस्य नामानि – शिलाजतुनि शैलेयमद्र्यं गिरिजमश्मजम् ।
धातुजमश्मजतुकं शैलजं चाश्मसम्भवम् ।।७९।।

79. Synonyms of Silājita (Black Bitumen) and its purification:

The bitumen is famous (in Ayurveda) by such names as Śilājātu, Śaileya, Adrya, Girijā, Aśmaja, Dhātuja, Aśmajatuka, Śailaja, Aśmasambhava, etc.

Note: All the above names underline the connection between bitumen and the hills. In reality, this is an oily matter generated around hill-stones. –


गोदुग्धत्रिफलाभृङ्गद्रवैः पिष्टं शिलाजतु । दिनैकं लोहजे पात्रे शुद्धिमायात्यसंशयम् ।।८० ।।

80. Purification of Silājita:

To purify the silajatu, one should prepare its kalka using the cow-milk and get it dried in sun for a daylong period. Thereafter this process should be continued for another two days using the decoction of triphala herbs and the juice of bhringa consecutively in turns, in place of cow-milk.

Note – Being found in stony surfaces, it is natural that śilājātu contains several stone particles in it. Thus it is essential that these particles be removed from before its medicinal use.

In general, the śilājātu can also be purified as the process given below. Make small pieces of silājātu and keep them into an iron or earthen pot. Pour a double amount of very hot water into it and collect the floating concentrated part. (One can use the decoction of triphalā, cow-urine, and decoction of daśamula in place of water.) Strain the concentrate and dry the silājātu pieces in hot sun. To remove alien particles from the drug one should water-wash it time and again and dry the same in sun.

शिलाजतु भवेत् तिक्तं कटुकञ्च रसायनम् । क्षयशोथोदराशसि हन्ति बस्तिरुजां जयेत् ।। ८१ ।।

81. Characteristics of purified silājatu:

The silajātu is a chemical that is bitter and pungent in taste. The purified śilājātu is capable to cure consumption, piles, inflammation and pain in stomach and lower abdomen.

Note- The dose of silājātu is between 250-1000 mg.


सौवीरं टङ्कणं शङ्खं कङ्गुष्ठं गैरिकं तथा । एते वराटवच्छोध्या भवेयुर्दोषवर्जिताः ।।८२ ।।

82. Purification of Sauvira and the like matters:

The Sauvira, Tankana, Sankha, Kankustha, Gairika, etc. are purified through the method prescribed in the case of Varātikā above.

Note – The name Sauvira (literally meaning from the Suvira region’) is a silver-white metal that breaks easily). It has been called so as its famous mine is situated at a place near Jhelum river which is called Survira region. As regards the term Kankuştha, use of this term remains elusive as yet. It may be a sub-metal of the vanga or a herbal product. The Gairika is an ore of iron. It is of two kinds: one which has a hard surface and is copper red in colour; the other has a smooth surface and is dark red in complexion. The former is called Pāṣāṇa Gairika while the other, Svarna Gairika. For medicinal use, one should take only the Svarṇa Gairika.

कमुष्ठादीनां शोधनम्

कङ्कुष्ठंगैरिकंशङ्खं काशीशं टङ्गणं तथा । नीलाञ्जनं शुक्तिभेदाः खुल्वकाः सवराटकाः ।।८३।। जम्बीरवारिणास्विन्नाः क्षालिताः कोष्णवारिणा | शुद्धिमायान्त्यमीयोज्याभिषग्भिर्योगसिद्धये ।।८४।।

83-84. Purification of Kankustha (extract if Gambose tree) and the like matters: The kankustha, gairika, sankha ( counch-shells), kāśīśa ( green vitriol), tañkaņa (borax), nīlanjana, Sukti bheda (oyster-shell), varātaka (cowries), snailshells, etc. are easily purified by swooning them in Dola Yañtra along with the juice of jambīra and a subsequent hot water washing. The physicians are advised to use only purified form of these matters.

Note – The kankustha, Kāśīśa and tañkaņa are soluble in water. Therefore, they should be only swooned.

टङ्गण क्रामणष्टङ्गः सम्यक्क्षारश्च पाचनः । सुभगो मालतीजातो द्रावी लौहविशुदिः ||८५ ।।

85. The borax is called by such terms as Tañkana, Krāmana, Tañga, Samyakkşāra, Pachana, Subhagā, Mālati, Jata, Drāvi and Lauhaviśuddhi.


आदौटङ्गणमादाय काञ्जिकाम्ले विनिक्षिपेत् । एकरात्रात् समुद्धृत्य रौद्रयन्त्रे विभावयेत् ।। ८६ ।। नरमूत्रगतं टङ्गं गवां मूत्रगतं तथा । दिनान्ते तत् समुद्धृत्य जम्बीराम्बुगतं ततः ।।८७ ।। जम्बीराम्लात्समुद्धृत्य नारिकेलस्य पात्रके । मरिचचूर्णसंयुक्तं क्षालयेच्छीतलाम्बुना ।
एवं टङ्गं समादाय सर्वरोगेषु योजयेत् ।।८८ ।।

86-88. Purification of Tankana (Borax = Na, B,O, 10H,0):

Soak the borax into kānji for overnight and dry it in the sun the following day. Thereafter apply the bhāvanā process to it by using the juice of jambīra lemon, human urine and cow-urine each for three consecutive nights. After that, the borax should again be soaked into the juice of jambīra lemon. After some time, it should be separated from the lemon juice and be kept into a coconut shell. Finally the borax should be washed in cold water treated with small quantity of black pepper. The borax, thus purified could be used for all medicinal purposes.

Discussion – Now days, the purification of tankana is performed only through roasting it in fire. However, before fire-treating the borax it should be refined as the method given below. Obtain one part of borax and 24 parts of water and solve the matter into it. Then dry up the water by heating the mix on fire. The purified borax is used in doses ranging between 250-100 mg.


टङ्गणोऽग्निकरो रूक्षः कफघ्नो रेचनो लघुः ।।८९।।

89. Merits of purified tankana:

The tankaṇa (borax) is listless in taste. Nevertheless, it promotes digestion and destroys excessive kapha. It is a good laxative. It is easy to digest also.


90. Purification of Sankha:

Obtain 48 gm. of sankha (powder of counch-shell) and mix it with 2 gm. worth borax. Prepare a kalka of the mix and place the same into Andha Mūṣā and stir the mix thoroughly using a Danḍa Yañtra (baton like instrument). The Sankha Bhasma is thus prepared.


शङ्खः सर्वरुजां हन्ति विशेषादुदरामयम् । शूलाम्लपित्तविष्टम्भ – मेहहृद् वह्निदीपनः ।।९१।।

91. Merits of purified sankha:

The counch-shell is capable to remove all the diseases. Particularly those related to the udara (gastro intestinal tract). It removes the colic pain, acidity, constipation and meha (urinary disorders including diabetes). It is a great appetizer as well.

Note- The sankha bhasma should be consumed in doses of 250 mg.


हेमादिलौहकिट्टान्तं शोधनं मारणं शृणु । तैले तक्रे गवां मूत्रे काञ्जिकेऽथ कुलत्थजे ।।९२।।
तप्ततप्तानि सिञ्चेत तत्तद्द्रावे च सप्तधा । एवं स्वर्णादिलौहानि शुद्धिमायान्त्यसंशयम् ।।९३।।

92-93. Purification of metals like Gold (Aurum = Au):

This sequence. Now the process to purify and incincerate metals like gold, lauhakīṭṭa, etc. is described. These metals are purified by heating them on fire and cooling them in oil, buttermilk, cow-urine, kānji and decoction of kulattha beans in process is to be repeated seven times in a row using all the five ingredients noted above.

Note- The process described above is meant for simple purification. For complete incineration this process is not sufficient. For complete refinement, the above process is to be followed by further incineration methods.

अशुद्धामृतस्वर्णस्य दोषा:-

सौख्यं वीर्य्यं बलं हन्ति नानारोगं करोति च । अशुद्धममृतं स्वर्णं तस्माच्छुद्धन्तु मारयेत् ।। ९४ । ।

94. Demerits of impure and unprocessed svarna:

Gold without refinement and purification is harmful as it deposes comforts, vigour and strength and produces different diseases. Therefore, the gold should be first refined and then processed for incineration.


वल्मीकमृत्तिका धूमं गैरिकं चेष्टका पटु । इत्येता मृत्तिकाः पञ्च जम्बीरैरारनालकेः ।।९५ ।।
पिष्ट्वा लेप्यं स्वर्णपत्रं पुटेन तु विशुध्यति । धारयेत् स्वर्णपत्रीभिस्त्रिदिनं पञ्चमृत्तिकाः ।।९६।।

95-96. Purification of svarna i.e. gold:

The soil obtained from the ant-hill (vālmīka), the black soil (dhūma), the morrom (gairika), the dust of backed bricks (iṣṭaka) and the soil obtained from the arid zones (patu), all these make the group of ‘five soils’. They all should be compounded into a kalka using the juice of jambīra lemon and kānji. This kalka should be coated over the flakes of gold. The flakes should be processed through puta method. This purifies the gold. However, the kalka of five soils should remain coated over the gold plate for three full days before it is puta- processed.


शुद्धसूतसमस्वर्णं खल्लकृत्वा तु गोलकम् । ऊर्ध्वाधोगन्धकं दत्त्वा सर्वतुल्यं निरुध्य च ।।९७।। त्रिंशद्वनोपलैर्दद्यात् पुटान्येवं चतुदर्श । निरूत्थं जायते भस्म गन्धो देयः पुनः पुनः ।। ९८ ।।

97-98. Māraṇa of svarṇa:

Take equal parts of gold and pārada and triturate them into a hand stonemortar (khalla) and prepare a ball out of it. Obtain sulphur powder in weight equal to the ball and coat the ball with it. Fire the ball under a heap of thirty (dried) cow dung cakes. This process should be repeated fourteen times and equal weight of sulphur is to be employed during each turn. This process produces nirutha (good quality of) Svarṇa bhasma.

Discussion: Some theorists suggest mixing mercury and sulphur in equal parts during each of the 14 times of heating noted above. Others suggest that the amount of mercury should be reduced each time, by rate of 1/16th. The juice of lemon has not been referred to in the method above. However, as the work Ayurveda Prakāśa advocates, one should employ the lemon-juice here even when no reference to it has been noted by the writer of the work. Other theorists also suggest the use of lemon-juice as its acidic quality expedites the process of incineration without doubt. –


कषायतिक्तमधुरं सुवर्णं गुरु लेखनम् । हृद्य रसायनं बल्यं चक्षुष्यं कान्तिदं शुचि ।। ९९ ।।
आयुर्मेधावयः स्थैर्य वाग्विशुद्धिस्मृतिप्रदम् । क्षयोन्मादगराणाञ्च कुष्ठानां नाशनं परम् ।।१०।।

99-100. Merits of purified svarna:

The gold is astringent, bitter and sweet in taste. It is heavy and purgative (lekhan) and fit for heart as a rasāyaṇa, invigourating and beneficial for the eyesight. It helps the skin to glow. This is austere, strengthening to life and the intellect. It develops sophistication to the speech organs and to the memory-power of the users. It also destroys such diseases as consumption, insanity, poisoning and various types of kuṣṭha (skin diseases including leprosy).

Note – The dose should be limited to 16-62 mg. Some theorists suggest the limit to this dose up to 32 mg.


दग्धोत्तीर्णं सुशीतं यन्निर्मलं कुन्दसन्निभम् । गुरु स्निग्धं कुमारञ्च तारमुत्तमंमिष्यते ।।१०१।।

101. Characteristics of pure Rajat (Silver) (Argentinum = Ag):

The type of silver that (after being baked in fire and cooled) appears quite clear and as white as the flowers of kunda; that which is heavy in weight, smooth and soft on surface is the best variety of silver.


आयुः शुक्रं बलं हन्ति रोगसङ्घं करोति च । अशुद्धञ्चामृतं तारं शुद्धं मार्यमतो बुधैः ।। १०२।।

102. Demerits of impure rajat (silver):

Impure and un-incinerated silver reduces longevity, strength and vigour and produces groups of diseases, therefore one must purify and incinerate the metal before employing it to medicinal uses.


नागेन क्षारराजेन द्रावितं शुद्धिमृच्छति । रजतं दोषनिर्मुक्तं किंवा क्षाराम्लपाचितम् ।।१०३।।

103. Purification of rajat:

The raw silver is refined by mixing it with lead and borax and smelting them together. Following this the silver is separated and is subsequently cooked in some acid and citrus liquid. Thus, silver could be refined.


माक्षिकं गन्धकञ्चैवमर्कक्षीरेण मर्दयेत् । तेन लिप्तं रूप्यपत्रं पुटेन म्रियते ध्रुवम् ।।१०४।।

104. The mārana process to incinerate the rajat:

To purify and incinerate silver foils, get them kalka- pasted with a concentrate of the mix of mākṣika and sulphur triturated along with the latex of arka. The kalka- pasted silver foils should be heated through the puța method.

Note- One should use sulphur in a part equal to the silver while the mākṣika should be taken in a quantity one-fourth to it.


शीतं कषायं मधुरमम्लं वातप्रकोपजित् । दीपनंबलकृत् स्निग्धं गुल्माजीर्णविनाशनम् ।
आयुष्यं दीर्घरोगघ्नं रजतं लेखनं स्मृतम् ।।१०५।।

105. Merits of purified rajat:

The silver is sour, sweet and citrus in taste. It is smooth in texture. Effect wise, it promotes the digestive power, vigour and longevity. It removes such diseases as indigestion, abdominal swelling (gulma), etc. It is lekhan (stimulating) in effect and it also checks the chronic diseases.

Note- The dose of the silver bhasma is generally between 32-125 mg.


तत्रादावशुद्धताम्रदोषा:नविषं विषमित्याहुस्ताभ्रञ्च विषमुच्यते ।
एको दोषो विषे त्वष्टौ दोषास्ताम्रे प्रकार्त्तिताः ।।१०६।।
भ्रमो मूर्च्छा विदाहश्च उक्लेदशोषवान्तयः ।
अरुचिश्चित्तसन्ताप एते दोषा विषोपमाः ।
तस्माद्विशुद्ध ताम्रं हि ग्राह्य रोगोपशान्तये ।।१०७।।

106-107. Purification of Tamra ( Copper) (Cupram = Cu) and demerits of impure tāmra:

Poison is not single, the raw copper is also poison and deadly one. While the poison contains one single demerit in it, there are eight poison-like demerits in the raw copper. It produces giddiness, fainting, burning sensation, tiredness, consumption, vomiting, loss of appetite and heart burning, etc. Therefore, only after refining and incinerating it, the physician should use copper.

Discussion – In suggesting copper as more dangerous than poison, the author has not exaggerated the case. The killing effect of copper can be easily noticed by putting small pieces of this metal into a well contaminated by worms. The worms are rapidly killed as the copper pieces chemically react with water. Noticing this quality of the metal, ancient Ayurvedic theorists have suggested use of copper pots to keep water free of worms.


पटुना रविदुग्धेन ताम्रपत्राणि लेपयेत् । अग्नौ सन्ताप्य निर्गुण्डीरसे सिञ्चेत् पुनः पुनः ।। १०८।।

108. Refining the Tamra (copper):

Prepare a kalka of the powered rock-salt treated in the latex of arka and coat it over the copper foils. Then heat up the plates and cool them down using the juice of nirgundi. By repeating this process for seven times, the copper foils are refined.


जम्भाम्भसा सैन्धवसंयुतेन सगन्धकं स्थापय शुल्वपत्रम् ।
पक्वायमानं पुटयेत् सुयुक्त्या वान्त्यादिकं यावदुपैति शान्तिम् ।। १०९।।

109. The māraṇa (incineration) process for the refined tamra (copper):

Obtain one part each of rock salt and sulphur and prepare a kalka of the mix by churning it along with juice of jambīra lemon. Coat the kalka over copper flakes and put it in the bottom of an earthen pot. Keep a small plate inside the pot to cover the copper flakes at the bottom of the pot. Seal the jonts of the plates and fill up the remaining part of the earthen pot with sand. Heat up the pot till the oxydum of the metal is obtained. Subsequently the oxydum should be cooked through the puța process along with the Pañca Gavya. The Pañca Gavya is combinaion of the dung, urine, milk, curd and clarified butter of a cow.

Discussion: Finally one should wash the metal in water repeatedly to remove the contamination of the rock-salt used in the above process. Some physicians use ashes in place of sand in the process. Similarly many persons employ Pañcāmṛitā in place of the Pañca Gavya in the method.


वान्ति भ्रान्तिविवर्जितं क्षयरुजाकुष्ठानिपाण्ड्वामयं शूलं मेहगुदाङ्कुरानिलगदानुक्तानुपानैर्जयेत् । गुञ्जामात्रमिदंततोद्विगुणितंतच्छुद्धकायेनचेद्भुक्तं स्थौल्यजराऽ पमृत्युशमनंपथ्याशिनावत्सरात् ।। ११० ।।

110. Merits of purified tāmra:

The copper thus incinerated is capable to remove vomitting tendency, giddiness, etc. If taken in such small doses equal to weight of guñjā (125 mg.), with proper anupāna it checks consumption, kustha (skin diseases including leprosy), anemia, polyuria, piles and indisposition created by vāta. If two guñjā measure of the drug is taken daily for one year after the body is cleaned through vomitting and virecana (purgation) and the dietary regulations are maintained during the period, one can check obesity, control untimely death and effects of old age.


कम्पित्तलञ्च तथाकांस्यं ताम्रवन्मारयत् पृथक् । ताम्रवच्छोधनं तेषां ताम्रवद् गुणकारकम् ।।१११।।

111. On refining and incineration of brass and bronze: The metals brace and bronze should be refined and purified by using the same methods as prescribed in the case of copper. These metals are as full of qualities as is the copper.

नागवङ्गयोः शोधनम्

नागवङ्गे च गलिते रविदुग्धेन सेचिते । त्रिवाराच्छुद्धिमायातः सच्छिद्रे हण्डिकाऽन्तरे ।। ११२ ।।

112. Refinement of Nāga (Lead) (Plumbum = Pb) and Vanga (Tin) (Stannum = Sn):

Gather the latex of arka tree into a pot and keep above this pot an earthen pot having a hole in its bottom. Put pieces of tin and lead in the earthen pot and heat or warm the lower pot till the metal gets liquefied and passes through the hole into the latex of arka. Repeat this process thrice to obtain refined tin and lead.


भूजङ्गममगस्त्यस्य पिष्ट्वा पत्रं प्रलेपयेत् । तत्र संविद्रुते नागे वासाऽपामार्गसम्भवम् ।।११३।।
क्षारं विमिश्रयेत् तत्र चतुर्थाशं गुरुक्तितः । प्रहरं पाचयेच्चुल्यां वासादर्व्या च चालयेत् ।।११४।।
तत उद्धृत्य तच्चूर्णं वासानीरेण मर्दयेत् । एवं सप्तपुटैर्नागं सिन्दूरं जायते ध्रुवम् ।। ११५ ।।

113-115. Incineration of Naga (lead):

Apply the kalka of agastya leaves over the plates of lead and smelt them by putting them into an earthen pot over a stove. Add small quantities of the alkali of aḍuṣā and apāmārga leaves into the pot as per direction of some learned teacher. Meanwhile coninue to stir the materials in pot through a stick of aḍușă plant. When the lead gets crystallized then remove the metal and triturate it through the juice of adusă leaves and dry it through firing (through puța method). Repeat this process for seven times to obtain the bhasma of lead as red as the colour of sindūra.

Note The description above has been quoated from the text Rasamanjarī. In many other texts invement of bhunāga, i. e. earth worms has been suggested.


तारस्य रञ्जनो नागो वातपित्तकफापहः । ग्रहणीकुष्ठगुल्मार्शः शोषव्रणविषापहः ।।११६।।

116. Merits of purified naga:

The purified lead is used in colouring the silver. It is capable to remove the disorder caused by any of the doșas (vāta, pitta, and kapha), kuṣṭha (skin diseases including leprosy), consumption, scabies, effect of poison and such diseases as grahaṇī (sprue) and gulma (abdominal tumour).


वङ्गं खर्षरके कृत्वा चुल्ल्यां संस्थापयेत् सुधीः । द्रवीभूते पुनस्तस्मिञ् चूर्णान्येतानि दापयेत् ।। ११७।। प्रथमे रजनीचूर्ण द्वितीये च यमानिकाम् । तृतीये जीरकञ्चैव ततश्चिञ्चात्वगुद्भवम् ।। ११८ ।। अश्वत्थवल्कलोत्थञ्च चूर्णं तत्र विनिक्षिपेत् । एवं विधानतो वङ्गं म्रियते नात्र संशयः ।। ११९ ।।

117-119. Incineration of Vanga (Tin):

Melt the tin in a saucepan and add to it in its equal weight the powder of turmeric, caraway (yavānī), cumin seeds, bark of the tamarind tree and bark of pīpal. Add these ingredients gradually and in sequence while continuing to stir all of them in saucepan through a large spoon. Thus one can incinerate the tin and obtain the bhasma of the same.

Discussion As suggested the amount of all the powders above should be equal to the weight of vanga in context. As a matter of fact, the above method is meant to fire (jarana) the metal. If one has to obtain a better quality of vanga bhasma, the above treatment should again be followed by administration of puța process along with any one of the following: orpiment (haratāla), juice of kumārī leaves, latex of arka and alkali of the pippal (aśvattha) plant.


वङ्गं तिक्ताम्लकं रूक्षंकिञ्चिद्वातप्रकोपणम् । मेदः श्लेष्मामयघ्नञ्च क्रिमिघ्नं मेहनाशनम् ।। १२० ।।

120. Merits of the incinerated vanga:

The refined and incinerated vanga bhasma is bitter, acidic, sour in taste and produce roughness on body. It may develop some disorders related to vāta dosa. However, it is capable to remove disorders connected with kapha and pitta doșas, to cure disease like meha (urinary disorders including diabetes) and worms-related indispositions.

Note The vanga bhasma can be taken in doses of 62-250 mg. as per the strength and age of the individual concerned.

लौहंशोधनम् –

तप्तानि सर्वलौहानि कदलीमूलवारिणि । सप्तधा त्वभिषिक्तानि शुद्धिमायान्त्यनुत्तमाम् ।। १२१।।

121. On refinement of Lauha (Iron) (Ferrum = Fe): The iron ore can be refined only after getting it smelted through all means (see 124 below) and cooling the same in the juice of banana-roots for seven consecutive terms.

Note – Incineration by the banana-juice has been suggested in cases of other metals as well. The term ‘Lauha’ is also used to denote any kind of metals. In any case, the iron is very much included among such metals.


त्रिफलाऽष्टगुणेतोये त्रिफला षोडशं पलम् । तत्क्वाथे पादशेषे तु लोहस्य पलपञ्चकम् ।। १२२ ।।
कृत्वा च तप्तपत्राणि सप्तवारं निषेचयेत् । एवं प्रलीयते दोषो गिरिजे ! लौहसम्भवः ।।१२३ ।। ‘वरांचतुर्गुणांलोहात्ततोवारिचतुर्गुणम् | दत्त्वा निष्क्वाथयेत् तावद्यावत्यादस्थितं भवेत्’ । इति ।।

122-123. Difference of opinion:

Obtain 768 gm. of triphalā herbs and boil them in water eight times more. Continue the boiling till the whole quantity is reduced to a one-fourth of the original. Then strain the decoction and use it in cooling down the thin and heated iron foils weighing 240 gm. Heat and cool down the iron foils in this fashion for seven consecutive terms. Thus all the contamination of iron is removed.

Discussion- Since the iron ore is discovered through hilly regions, it is only natural that hill/stone related contaminations are there in the metal. Therefore the above incineration is essential. The ratio of the weights of water (16) and iron (5) is a bit difficult to follow in this process. However, in the work ‘Lohapaddhati’ the ratio of 1:4:16 (iron:triphalā:water) has been suggested that is easy to follow.

निरुत्थीकरणोपायः –

भानुपाकात्तथास्थालीपाकाच्चपुटपाकतः । निरुत्थोजायते लौहो यथोक्तफलदो भवेत् ।। १२४।।

124. The iron is obtained in purified and bhasma form by smelting the metal through Bhanupāka. Sthālī pāka and Puţa Pāka.


लौहे दृषदि लौहञ्च मुद्गरेण हतं मुहुः । कृत्वाऽम्बुगलितं शुद्धं जलेन त्रैफलेन वा ।।१२५।।
क्षालयेद्वहुशः पश्चात् कृत्वा द्रव्यान्तरं पृथक् । शोषितं भानुभिर्मानोर्भनुपाके प्रयोजयेत् ।।१२६ ।। 125-126.

The method of Bhānu Pāka:

Obtain small pieces (worth size of lentil beans) of iron by hammering it on some hard stone by a pure iron-hammer. Then wash these pieces repeatedly in water or the decoction of triphalā and thus separate the particles of coal, etc. from the metal. Dry the metal and keep it for Bhānu Pāka.

Note – Using the decoction of triphalā instead of water in this process yields better results. Therefore, if lauha bhasma is to be obtained for some critical application one must use the decoction of triphala only.

क्षालने भानुपाके तु लौहतुल्यं फलत्रिकम् । जलं द्विगुणितं दत्त्वा चतुर्भागावशेषितम् ।।१२७।।
एवमुक्तं फलक्वाथ-जलं दत्त्वा पुनः पुनः । शोषयेत् सूर्य्यतेजोभिर्निरन्तरमहस्रयम् ।।१२८।।
अथवा तत्र तत्क्वाथं दत्त्वा दत्त्वा भिषग्वरः । सप्तसप्तविधैरेवं सप्त वारान् विशोधयेत् ।।१२९।।

127-129. For washing and Bhānu Pāka obtain the triphalā herbs in parts equal to the iron in context. Boil the triphala in water double in their weight till the original quantity is reduced to one fourth. The iron should be repeatedly dipped into this decoction and the same should be dried under the sun (meaning of term ‘Bhānu’ being the sun ) for three days. One may also divide the decoction into seven parts and then dip the iron pieces into each of them to be dried in sequence.


इत्थमादित्यपाकान्तेस्थाल्यां पाकमुपाचरेत् । स्थालीपाके फलं ग्राह्यमयसस्त्रिगुणीकृतम् ।।१३०।।
तस्य षोडशिकं तोयमष्टभागाविशेषितम् । मृदुमध्मकठोराणामन्येषामयसा समम् ।
क्वथनीयं समादाय चतुरष्टौ च षोडश । गुणानां स्थाप्यते तोयं शेषयेदयसा समम् ।
स्वरसस्यापि लौहेन स्थालीपाके समानता ।।१३१।। –

130-131. The method of Sthālīpāka:

8 After processing the iron through Bhānu pāka one should apply the method of Sthālī pāka to the metal. For this, one has to obtain the triphalā three times larger in weight to the iron ore (to be purified). This should be cooked in water sixteen times larger in amount. The boiling of triphala should continue till the original amount is reduced to / th. Secondly, one should take smooth, mild and hard substances, all equal to the weight of the iron and boil iron in them consecutively involving water in four, eight and sixteen times larger in weight in that order. When the boiling water is reduced to the amount equal to that of the iron itself, the boiling should be stopped. In the process of Sthālī Pāka, the juice is also taken only in an amount equal to the iron (see 133-134 below).

स्थाल्यांक्वाथादिकंदत्त्वायथाविधिविनिर्मितम्/पाकेनक्षीयतेयस्मात्स्थालीपाकइतिस्मृतः ।। १३२।।

132. The term ‘Sthālī Pāka’ has been based on the method of cooking (Paka) through a ‘Sthālī which is a saucepan shape pot. The suggested decoction, etc. are cooked in this pot.

हस्तिकर्णपलाशस्य मूलञ्च शतमूलिका । भृङ्गराजाख्यराजानामेषां निजरसैः सह ।। १३३ ।।
मिलित्वा विधातव्यंस्थालीपाके फलादनु । यथादोषौषधेनापि स्थालीपाको विधीयते ।। १३४।।

133-134. Gather the decoction of triphalā and iron particles in an iron Sthāli (defined above) and cook the same. When the decoction is boiled add to it the juices of hastikarna palāśa ‘s roots, śatamūla, bhringarāja (one of them or all of them). Continue to cook the preparation till the juices disappear.

The juice of herbs used in treating the patient in context can also be employed in Sthālī Pāka. Similarly, if one or all of the suggested juices above produce adverse effects on the patients in question, the Sthālī pāka process should be carried out without using such juice or juices.

Note- If the juice of herbs are not available, one can even use the decoction of such herb.


स्थालीपाकेऽयः सुपकं प्रक्षाल्य स्वच्छवारिणा । शुष्कंसंचूर्ण्ययलेनपुटपाके प्रयोजयेत् ।।१३५।। पुटाद्दोषविनाशः स्यात् पुटादेव गुणोदयः । सियतेच पुटाल्लौहस्तस्मात् पुटं समाचरेत् ।।१३६ ।।
यथा यथा प्रदीयन्ते पुटा: सुबहुशो यदि । तथा तथा प्रकुर्वन्ति गुणमेव सहस्रशः ।। १३७ ।।
पुटपाकेन पक्वन्तु शस्यसे रसकर्मसु । दशादिशतपर्यन्तो गदे पुटविधिमतः ।। १३८ ।।
शतादिस्तु सहस्रान्तः पुटो देयो रसायने । बाजीकर्मणि विज्ञेयो दशादिशतपञ्चकः ।।१३९ ।।
तावदेव पुटेल्लौहं यावच्चूर्णीकृतं जले | निस्तरङ्गे लघुत्वेन समुत्तरात हंसवत् ।।१४०।।
पुटपाकौषधस्यापि क्वाथो वा स्वरसोऽपि वा । वक्ष्यमाणप्रमाणेनकर्त्तव्योभिषजां वरैः ।। १४१ ।। रसाभावेतुसर्वेषांक्वाथोग्राह्यो मनीषिभिः । अभावे स्वरसस्यापि क्वाथ एवफलत्रिकात् ।।१४२।।
‘लभ्यते स्वरसा येषां तेषां क्वाथस्तुनेष्यते । त्रिफलाव्यतिरिक्तेन मतमेतत्पतञ्जले’ ।। १३५-१४२।।

135-142. The method of Puta pāka :

The iron ore processed through the Sthālī pāka should be washed thoroughly in water and be dried. Then it should be powdered and subjected to the Puța Pāka. By the Puta method only, the demerits of metal are removed and the qualities of metals manifest and the iron is incinerated. Therefore, the Puta processing is must for incinerating the iron ore. More number of times the iron is subjected to the Puta process, better qualities of the bhasma is obtained. For medicinal purposes, only the Puta processed iron ore is to be employed. For cure of general diseases, the iron should be processed in Puta for ten to hundred times. For use in rasāyaṇa, the iron should be processed between 100 to 1000 times and for aphrodisiac purposes, the metal should be Puța processed for 10 to 500 times. The processing through Puța should continue so long as the iron bhasma particles start floating on the surface of water as the Hamsa (celestial swan). The physician should keep ready the decoction of various herbs or their juices as per suggested requirement. If the juice of a given herbs is not available, one can use the decoction of the same. Even in the case of triphalā, one could take their decoction if needed.

Discussion The dose of the decoctions meant for Puța pāka has been suggested below (see para 147). It is always better to use the decoction of triphala instead of their juices. The sage Patanjali has also suggested this.


शतावरी बला धात्री – गुडूची वृद्धदारकः ।।१४३।।
वानरीभृङ्गराजाख्य- विदारीगोक्षुरक्षुरैः । वाजिगन्धाकणायुक्तैर्वाजीकर्म्मसु शस्य ।।१४४।।

143-144. The Śatāvarī group of herbs:

For a Puta paka of iron meant for aphrodisiac uses, the application of such herbs is better: satāvarī, balā, dhātrī, guḍūcī, vṛiddhadāraka, vānarī, bhṛingarāja, vidārī, gokṣura, kolilākṣa, aśvagandha, and pīppal.


विदारीकन्दपिण्डाह्व- भृङ्गराजशतावरी क्षीरकञ्चकभल्लातामृतकाचित्रकैस्तथा ।।१४५ ।।
करिकणपलाशैश्च मुशलीमधुकैरपि । मुण्डिरीकेशराजैश्च पुटा देयो रसायने ।। १४६।।

145-146. The Vidārīkanda group of herbs:

For a Puta paka of iron meant for rasāyaṇa purposes, such herbs should be utilized:vidarīkanda, pinḍālu, bhringraja, śatavarī, kṣīrakañcuka, bhallataka, amritakã, citraka, hastikarnapalāśa, muśalı, madhuka, mundirī and keśarāja.

सामान्ये तु विशेषे च पुटे यद् यत् प्रकीर्त्तितम् ।
मिलितैरेकशो वा तैर्यथेष्टं पुटयेत् ततः । पुटपाके फलादीनामयसा ग्रहणं समम् ।।१४७।।

147. In general or in especial puta pāka process, one should use any one of the prescribed herbs or one should employ all the herbs. The quantity of juice applied to the process should equal to the weight of the iron to be incinerated.

अथ पुटपाकप्रकरणमाह

हस्तमात्रमिते गर्ने करीषेणार्द्धपूरिते ।। १४८।।

अथवा तुषकाष्ठाभ्यां पूरितेऽर्द्धं निधापयेत् । लौहमग्नि ततो दत्त्वा तथैवोर्ध्वं प्रपूरयेत् ।।१४९।।
दिवा वा यदि वा रात्रौ विधिनाऽनेन पाचयेत् । वतुर्भिः प्रहरैरेव पुटपाकेन मारयेत् ।।१५०।।

148 -150. The process of puta pāka method of incineration:

Dig a pit measuring one hand (= 2.5 feet, roughly) in depth and one hand in diameter. Fill up the pit till its half through wood pieces or reeds and cow dung cakes. Place the iron in a Samputa (pack) above it and lit fire there. Then fill up the upper half of pit also using the fuels prescribed above. The cooking of the iron pack should thus continue for four prahars ( 12 hours) in day or during night. To incinerate iron this method is to be followed.

पुटपाकेक्षणादूर्ध्वं स्थितो भवतिभस्मसात् । अधस्तादपकृष्टस्तुमन्दो भवतिवीर्य्यतः ।। १५१ ।। कुण्डस्थो भस्मनाऽऽच्छन्न आकृष्टव्यः सुशीतलः । समाकृष्टस्य तप्तस्य गुणहानिः प्रजायते ।। १५२।।

151-152. One must place the pack (Samputa) of iron in the middle of the pit as by placing it on the top surface, the iron is excessively heated while putting it at the bottom results in the ore getting heated below the desired degree. The Samputa surrounded by the ash of fuels in the pit should be removed only when it gets cool, for removing iron while it is still hot yields a low quality of iron bhasma.


कृष्णाय: शोथशूलार्श: क्रिमिपाण्डुत्वशोषनुत् । वयस्यं गुरु चक्षुष्यं सर्वभेदोऽनिलापहम् ।। १५३ ।।
आयुः प्रदाताबलवीर्य्यकर्त्तारोगापहर्त्तामदनस्यकर्त्ता । अयः समानंनहिकिञ्चिदस्तिरसायनं श्रेष्ठतम्ंनराणाम् ।। १५४।।

153-154. The black lauha bhasma contributes to the longevity and increased eyesight. It is heavy to digest and capable to treat such diseases as edema, piles, pain, anemia, consumption, colic and worm-generated indispositions. This removes the ailment generated by disordered vāta also. It checks all the diseases in general and is an aphrodisiac. Lauha bhasma is the best rasāyaṇa for human beings.

लौहसेवने वर्जनीयानि

कूष्माण्डं तिलतैलञ्च रसोनं राजिकां तथा । मद्यमम्मलरसञ्चैव त्यजेल्लौहस्य सेवकः ।।१५५ ।।

155. Items to be avoided while taking doses of iron bhasma:

While taking doses of iron bhasma, one has to avoid consuming such items as kusmānda (ash gourd), sesame oil, garlic pearls, black mustard and citrus fruits.

अथ मण्डूरशोधनादिक

शतोर्ध्वमुत्तमं किटटं मध्यञ्चाशीतिवार्षिकम् । अधमं षष्टिवर्षीयं ततो हीनं विषोपमम् ।। १५६ ।।

156. Purification of iron-rust (mandura) and the like:

(The mandūra that is hundred years old is best one, that which is eighty years old is of medium quality and that which is sixty years old is of an inferior quality. The mandura that is below 60 years in oldness is considered as harmful as the poison.

Note: The old theorists have suggested to use only such mandūra that is more than 100 years old. According to their views, older samples are better. owever, they can be still considered as of inferior, middle and superior qualities depending on its oldness (which must be more than 100 years). This opinion is better.


दग्ध्वाऽ क्षकाष्ठैर्मलमायसन्तुगोमूत्रनिर्वापितमष्टवारान् ।
विचूर्ण्य लीढं मधुनाऽचिरेण कुम्भाह्वयं पाण्डुगदं निहन्ति ।। १५७।।

157. Purification of iron-rust (mandura)

The mandūra if heated in the wood of akṣa plant and cooled in cow-urine for eight consecutive times refined and purified. If licked along with honey, its powder can cure such diseases as jaundice and anemia effectively.

Note: Without processing through Puta Paka, no metal bhasma can be considered as faultless and pure. Therefore, after the above process, the manḍūra should be subjected to puta method by saturating the same in the decoction of triphala herbs. This method should be repeated for at least seven times.


स्वेदयेद्दोलिकायन्त्रे जयन्त्याः स्वरसेन च । मणिमुक्ताप्रवालानि यामैकेन च शोधयेत् ।। १५८ ।।

158. Purification of the Mani-Muktā (Pearl, etc):

158. The gems like Mṣṇi-Muktā and pravāla are refined by cooking them in a Dola Yantra the juice of Jayanti for three hours.

Discussion – The grouping of Muktā and Prāvala (corral shell) with gems is unwarranted as both of these are organic material. Mani (Pearls) or jewels are, on the other hand, inorganic matters. As there is found matter like lime (calcium) inside the muktā and pravāla as is the case with conch shell, they should be grouped together separately.

Probably, owing to the brightness and great price of the muktā and their use in jewelry, old theorists classed muktā along with the gems. However, the muktā and pravāla are refined by nature itself. Hence, they are subjected to incineration only to enhance their inherent qualities. Thus has been opined by the author of Rasendra Cintamani.


मुक्ताफलानिशुद्धानिखल्लेपिष्ट्वा पुटेल्लघु एवं भस्मत्वमाप्नोति वज्रकं काञ्जियोगतः ।। १५९।।

159. The māraṇa process for the purified manimuktā and the like:

The refined pearls should be powdered in the khalla (hand mortar of stone) and processed through a mild Puța cooking. This method incincerate them. To obtain the hīraka (diamond) bhasma, one has to powder it and mix the powder into kānji and process the mix through Puta cooking.

Discussion – For powdering and pasting muktā, one can utilize any of these: cow milk, juice of jayanti, the essence of rose and kanji. The term ‘Vajraka’ used for diamond in the above paragraph should have been only ‘muktaka’ in original. This has been suggested here as the kanji produce little effects on diamond while its effect on muktā is very productive.


स्त्रीदुग्धेन प्रवालञ्च भावयित्वा तु हण्डिका ।।१६०।।

मध्येऽपि तक्रसहितं स्थापयेत् तां निरोधयेत् । चुल्ल्यामग्निप्रतापेन म्रियते प्रहरद्वये ।।१६१।।

160-161. The māraṇa process for the Pravala (Coral) (Calcium Carbonate = Ca CO₂):

The Pravala should be triturated in women’s milk through bhāvanā method and be kept along with buttermilk in the middle of an earthen pot. The mouth of pot should be tightened and the pot should be heated on stove for six hoursprocess prepares a quality bhasma of the pravala.

सर्वरत्नानां शोधनम्

कुलत्यस्य पलशतं वारिद्रोणेन पाचयेत् । तस्मिन्पादावशेषेचक्वाथेऽष्टौ मणयः शिलाः ।।१६२।।
आतपे त्रिदिनं शोध्याःक्वाथसिक्ताः पुनः पुनः । शुध्यन्तेसर्वरत्नानि मणयश्च न संशयः ।।१६३।।

162-163. Method of refining all the jewels:

Take 4800 gm. worth of kulattha beans and cook them in 12.50 litres of water till the original quantity is reduced to one fourth. All the eight kinds of jewels and manahsilā can be purified by irrigating them through this kulattha bean syrup and drying them in sun for three days in a row.

अथ विषशुद्धिः-

कृत्वा चणकसंस्थानं गोमूत्रैर्भावयेत् त्र्यहम् । समटङ्गणसम्पिष्टं मृतमित्युच्यते विषम् ।। १६४।।

164. Method to purify the visa (poison):

Obtain as small pieces of vișa as gram nuts and soak them into cow-urine for three consecutive days. Place them in sun to get them thoroughly dried. Finally powder them along with equal weight of borax. This process makes the poison refined and purified.


अर्कसेहुण्डधुस्तर लाङ्गलीकरवीरकाः । गुञ्जाऽहिफेनावित्येताः सप्तोपविषजातयः ।।१६५।। ‘विषतिन्दुकबीजंचत्वहिफेनञ्च रेचकम् । धत्तूरबीज विजया गुञ्जा भल्लातकाह्वयः ।।
अर्कक्षीरं स्नुहीक्षीरं लाङ्गली करवीरकम्’ ।।१६५।।

165. The group of semi poisonous herbs:

The semi-poisonous herbs include the following seven species: arka, sehunda, dhustara, langali, karaviraka, gunjā and ahiphena.

Note- In opinion of some theorists, the jayapāla and viṣamuṣṭi should also be included among the Upavisas (i.e. semi-poisons). In fact, all the matters that produce adverse effects in body should be considered as Upavisa.


धुस्तूरस्य च यद्वीजमन्यच्चोपविषञ्च यत् । तच्छोध्यंदोलिकायन्त्रे क्षीरपूर्णेऽथ पात्रके ।।१६६।।166. Purification of the semi poisonous herbs:

The seeds of Dhustūra (Dhatūra) and other Upavișas can be purified by cooking them in a pot filled up with milk through the Dola Yantra. Note- The seeds of dhustūra, their bark peeled off and soaked in the cow-urine for 12 hours, can be treated as purified ones.

अथ जयपालशुद्धिः

निस्तुषं जयपालञ्च द्विधा कृत्वा विचक्षणः । एतद्वीजस्य मध्यन्तु पत्रवत् परिवर्जयेत् ।। १६७।। अष्टमांशेनचूर्णेनटङ्गणस्य च मेलयेत् । केशयन्त्रे च तद्भाव्यं पाच्यं दुग्धेन संप्लुतम् ।
त्रिरात्रं शुद्धिमायाति जैपालममृतोपमम् ।। १६८ ।।

167-168. Refinement and purification of Jayapala:

Peel off the seeds of Jayapāla and cut them into two pieces from the center. Remove the foliage of wastage therein. Add borax to the jayapāla pieces in 8:1 ratio (borax being in lesser quantity) and process them in bhāvanā using the Kesa yantra. After that the jayapāla pieces should be cooked along with milk for three consecutive nights. Processing through this method makes the Jayapāla as refined and pure as nectar itself.

Note: The Kesa Yantra is a pot like bag prepared from organic fibers. The jayapāla pieces should be packed into it and then soaked into milk kept in a Dolā Yantra. Usually in place of fibers, the use of cotton pieces are resorted to. But using keśa net is better for the present purpose. (The term ‘Keśa’ is usually used in sense of hair. I have suggested ‘organic fibers’ in its place because the hair is regarded as impure object in Indian scriptures. Moreover, the use of term ‘Keśa’ has been employed to denote `fibre’ also on occasions – Translator) –

अथ स्नुही क्षीरशुद्धि:

चिञ्चापत्ररसे कर्षे वस्त्रपूते पलद्वयम् ।।१६९ ।।
स्नुहीक्षीरं रौद्रयन्त्रे भावयेद् यत्नतः सुधीः । द्रवे शुष्के समुत्तार्य्य सर्वरोगेषु योजयेत् ।।१७०।।

169-170. Purification of the latex of snuhi:

Mix 96 ml. of the latex into 12 ml. worth of the juice of tamarind leaves. Treat them through bhāvanā process using a Raudra Yañtra. When dried, obtain the latex and use it for all medicinal purposes.

अथ जलौकाशोधनम्

चिरन्तनीं जलौकान्तु ताम्रपात्रेषु रक्षयेत् । चतुर्माषं निशाचूर्णं जलाष्टकपले क्षिपेत् ।। १७१।।
तस्मिन् क्षिपेज्जलौकां तांस्वयंलालां परित्यजेत् । त्यक्तलाला जलौकाच सा योज्यारक्तमोक्षणे ।। १७२।।

171-172. To refine the Jālauka (leech):

Take a cooper pot and pour 384 ml. measure water into it and mix into it the turmeric powder worth 4 gm. Supply adult leeches to this pot. They would discharge saliva there and remain inside the pot. Use these leeches for blood – letting.


रोमपृष्ठा च कपिला रक्तरेखा च दुर्बला । वर्जनीया विशेषेण भिषजा कीर्त्तिमिच्छता ।।१७३।।

173. The leeches that are to be avoided:

The wise physicians should not engage a leech that have hairs on its back, is greyish in complexion, is weak in strength and that sports red lines on its body.


बीजमादौ समादाय रौद्रयन्त्रे विशोषयेत् । ईषत्सैन्धवयुक्तेन द्रवेण यत्नतः सुधीः ।
अपामार्गस्य वा तोयैर्वार्द्धक्यबीजशोधनम् ।। १७४।।

174. Refining the seeds of Vriddha Dāraka:

The seeds of Vriddha Dāraka are refined by washing them in water treated with rock salt and subsequently mixing in it the juice of apāmārga and finally drying the same in raudra yañtra under the sun.


अपामार्गकषायेण निम्बुबीजं विशोधयेत् । मूलक्वाथैः कुमार्य्याश्च जैपालबीजशोधनम् ।। १७५।। इन्द्रवारुणिकाक्वाथै राजवृक्षस्य बीजकम् । समूलोत्तरवारुण्या घुस्तूरबीजशोधनम् ।। १७६ ।। शिग्रुकार्पासबीजानि ह्यपामार्गस्य बीजकम् । घर्मेण शोधनं तेषां न दद्यात् सैन्धवं ततः ।।१७७।। तिक्ताकोषातकीदन्ती पटोली चेन्द्रवारुणी । कटुतुम्बी देवदाली काकतुण्डी च शुध्यति ।। १७८।। धात्रीफलरसेनैव महाकालस्य शोधनम् । करञ्जयुग्मयोर्बीजं भृङ्गराजेन शोधयेत् ।। १७९।। गुञ्जाऽऽदिसर्वबीजानांनरमूत्रैः पटुंविना । नारिकेलाम्बुना शोध्यं बीजं भल्लातकोद्भवम् ।। १८० ।। गुडूचीत्रिफलाक्वाथेक्षीरेचैवविशेषतः । पक्त्वा च खण्डशः शुद्धं गृह्णीयान्मृदु गुग्गुलुम् ।। १८१।।

175-181. The process of purifying different kinds of seeds:

The seeds of lemon are refined by processing it through bhāvanā method using the decoction of apāmārga. The seeds of jayapal is refined by cooking it in decoction of the roots of kumārī. The seeds of rajavrikṣa is refined by cooking it in the decoction of the roots of indravāruṇī. The dhustūra seeds require cooking along with the roots of uttara vāruṇī. The seeds of sigru, karpāsa and apāmārga are refined only through drying them in sun. Do not mix rock salt to them. The seeds of the bitter variety of koṣātakī, dantī, paṭola, indravāruṇī, bitter variety of tumbī, devadāli, and kākaṭundi, etc. are purified only by processing them through bhāvanā using the juice of amalakī. The small and large varieties of karanja seeds are to be purified through bhāvanā using the juice of bhṛingarāja. The seeds of gunjā, etc. are to be purified by washing them in human urine without salt (see the note below). The seeds of bhallataka are purified through cooling them in coconut-water. Removing the dust on it and cooking its pieces into the decoction of guducī and triphalā herbs purify the guggulu. For especial purity pieces of gugglu should be boiled along with milk. Finally it should be strained through a piece of cloth. Thus it becomes soft in texture.

Note- Apart from the cases where it has been forbidden, the rock-salt must be used in all cases of purification and refinement suggested above.

The purpose of the above methods is to remove harmful oily substances from the herbs. For details, one can consult the texts ‘Rasakamdhenu’ and ‘Rasaratnākara’.

The guggulu should be strained while it is still hot, for cooled guggulu would not get strained. Later on the water content of the drug is to be removed by cooking it on a slow heat and by drying it subsequently under the sun.

इति भैषज्यरत्नावल्यां शोधनमारणप्रकरणम् ।। २ ।।
इति विद्योतिनी भाषाटीकायां शोधनमारणप्रकरणम् ।।२।।

End of the Chapter 2 of Bhaiṣajya Ratnavalī with Commentary

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