अथ मिश्रवर्गप्रकरणम् ३
Chapter 3 Miscellaneous Topics
धर्मादिसाधनम्धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाणामारोग्यं मूलमुत्तमम् ।
रोगास्तस्यापहर्तारः श्रेयसो जीवितस्य च ।।१।।
1. Importance of a healthy body :
To practice religions duties ( Dharma), professional activities (Artha), reproduction (Kāma) and to achieve internal bliss (Moksa) after death, one needs a disease free body. Without such a body no one can perform such duties and achieve purposes of life. The physical and mental indispositions destroy longevity as well as health of the human beings.
व्याधयोद्विविधाःप्रोक्ताःशारीरामानसास्तथा । शारीरा ज्वरकुष्ठाद्या, उन्मादाद्या मनोभवाः ।।२।।
2. Kinds of ailments:
There are two kinds of ailments, one related to physical conditions and the other pertaining to mental state. The diseases like fever, kuṣṭha (skin diseases including leprosy), etc. are example of somatic indispositions while unmāda (dementia) and similar symptoms relate to psychological diseases.
दोषाणां साम्यमारोग्यं वैषम्यं व्याधिरुच्यते । सुखसंज्ञकमारोग्यं विकारो दुःखमेव च ।। ३ ।।
3. Symptoms of health and disease:
A physical state free of diseases is the result of balanced doșas in body including the pitta, kapha and vāta. The imbalance of there doșas is identical with the state of non- health, a situation of sorrow. In general, happiness is regarded as Arogya, freedom from ailments and from position of being diseased.
साध्योऽ साध्यव्याधिर्द्विधा तौ तु पुनर्द्विधा । सुखसाध्यः कृच्छ्रसाध्यो याप्यो यश्चाप्रतिक्रियः ।।४।।
4. Varieties of the diseases:
The diseases are of two baic varieties: curable ones and incurable ones. The curable diseases are further divided into two categories: easily curable ones and those curable with difficulty. The incurable ones are also divided into two groups namely the Yāpya diseases and the Apratikriya ones. The term Yapya is applied to those diseases which are not curable but are somehow manageable to control. These diseases can be checked through medicines for a while. They remain suppresses so long as the treatment is carried through. The moment treatments are stopped such diseases would produce harmful effects. The Apratikriyā diseases are completely incurable and they cannot be treated ever after great medications are applied to them.
As regards the curable diseases, those which are cured only through langhaṇa (fasting) and common dietary regulations (pathya) are called Sukhsādhya, i.e. easily curable ones. The diseases which are cured after strict medication, etc. are called Kriccha Sadhya ones.
याप्यत्वंयातिसाध्यस्तु याप्यो गच्छत्यसाध्यताम् । जीवितं हन्त्यसाध्यस्तु नरस्याप्रतिकारिणः ।।५।।
5. Damage due to untreated diseases:
The diseases must be treated upon at the earliest stage of their manifestation. If one neglects them at initial stage, even curable diseases can term into the Yāpya (see 4 above) ones. If the diseases are neglected even at the Yāpya stage, they may further turn into the Apratikriya ones (see 4 above) and subsequently may lead even to unfortunate death.
याप्या: केचित्प्रकृत्यैवकेचिद्याप्याउपेक्षया । प्रकृत्याव्याघधयोऽ साध्याः केचित् केचिदुपेक्षया ||६||
6. Loss due to lack of early treatment:
There are certain ailments that are Yapya (see 4 above) by their origin itself while they are many other diseases which turn into Yapya ones in absence of proper care and treatments. Thus there are certain diseases which are incurable by origin itself. There are, however, other indispositions which turn into incurable diseases by lack of care and attendance.
पापजादिभेदेन व्याघेः प्रकारान्तरम् –
तत्रैकः पापजो व्याधिरपरः कर्मजो मतः । पापजः प्रशमं याति भैषज्यसेवनादिना ।।७।। यथाशास्त्रविनिर्णीतोयथाव्याधिचिकित्सितः । नशमंयातियो व्याधिः स ज्ञेयः कर्मजो बुधैः ||८||
7-8. Different types of diseases:
From the point of origin, the diseases are sorted into two categories: Pāpaja and Karmaja. The Papaja diseases are result of the faulty habits of eating, etc. in present life. They are cured through proper medicines and regulated diet, etc. On the other hand the Karmaja diseases are incurable even when followed by correct diagnosis and proper treatment. The intelligent physicians must know this.
न जन्तुः कश्चिदमरः पृथिव्यामेव जायते । अतो मृत्युरवार्य्यः स्यात्किन्तु रोगो निवार्यते ।।९।।
9. Checking a premature death:
No one born in this world is immortal. Therefore, death could not be avoided altogether. However, if the patient has a life ahead he or she can be cured when indisposed. Therefore, so long as one is alive, one must be given proper treatment and care.
एकोत्तरं मृत्युशतमस्मिन् देहे प्रतिष्ठितम् । तत्रैकः कालसंयुक्तः शेषास्त्वागन्तवः स्मृताः ।।१०।। ये त्विहागन्तवः प्रोक्तास्ते प्रशाम्यन्ति भेषजैः । जपहोमप्रदानैश्च कालमृत्युर्न शाम्यति ।।११।।
10-11. Types of death:
There are as many as one hundred one occasions of death in one’s life. Out of that only one is the kālamrityu (i.e. the death on fixed time) and the rest the akālamrityu, i.e. an untimely demise. The akalamrityu can be avoided through medicines and religious rituals. The kālamrityu, however, cannot be avoided through any possible means.
पीडितं रोगसर्पाद्यैरपि धन्वन्तरिः स्वयम् । सुस्थीकर्तुं न शक्नोति कालप्राप्तं हि देहिनम् ।। १२ ।। 12. Certainity of death:
If the kalamrityu has appeared in one’s life in shape of one’s diseases or by means of snake-bite or like, one cannot be saved by Dhanvantarā, the healing God himself.
आयुष्येकर्मणिक्षीणेलोकोऽयंदूयतेयदा । नौषधानि न मन्त्राश्च न होमा न पुनर्जपाः ।।
त्रायन्ते मृत्युनोपेतं जरया चापि मानवम् ।।१३।।
13. Similar opinion:
If the life-sustaining constituents of one’s body is impaired or one has reached a quite old age, no medication, mantras, rituals and chanting of holy names can save one’s life.
वर्त्याधारस्नेहयोगाद्यथा दीपस्य संस्थितिः । क्रियाऽपि च दृष्टैवमकाले प्राणसंक्षयः ।।१४।।
14. Characteristics of a premature death:
A lamp continue to light so long as the cotton wick, the earthen or metal pot holding the liquid fuel is in good shape and as long as there is fuel in it. Likewise, a living body is living so long as the body, the indriyas (sense organs), the bodymatters and soul are integrated. Nonetheless, so as the lamp possessing all the three essentials like oil, wick and a shapely pot goes off through quick blows of wind, the one possessing the indriyas, soul and body integrated passes away owing to injurious conducts and eating habits, etc.
व्याघेस्तत्त्वपरिज्ञानं वेदनायाश्च निग्रहः । एतद्वैद्यस्य वैद्यत्वं न वैद्यः प्रभुरायुषः ।।१५।।
15. Limits of a physician:
Utilizing proper methods and tools, the wise physician should first diagnose the ailment and subsequently treat it or pacify it properly. This is the duty of a physician. A physician is not a deity of longevity. He cannot save a patient whose death has arrived.
यादृच्छिको मुमूर्षुश्च विहीनः करणैश्च यः । वैरी च धैद्यविद्वेषी श्रद्धाहीनः सशङ्कितः ।।१६।। भिषजामनियम्यश्च नोपक्रम्यो भिषग्विदा । एतानुपाचरन् वैद्यो बहून् दोषानवाप्नुयात् ।।१७।।
16-17. The patients which are unfit for medical treatment
A wise physician should not try to treat a patient who is indisciplined, who has reached a mortal stage, who is not reflecting any movement of sense organ and physical action, who harbours animosity to the physicians, who does not have faith in physicians, who ever suspects the utility of medicines, doses and pathya(dietary regulations) instructed to him/her and who have a tendency to behave contrary to the instructions given by the physicians. If a physician takes up the case of such patient he would only lose his reputation.
यावत्कण्ठगताप्राणायावन्नास्तिनिरिन्द्रियः । तावञ्चिकित्साकर्तव्याकालस्य कुटिला गतिः ।।१८।।
18. Limits to the medical treatment:
So long as there is symptom of breathing in the body of patient and so long as his/her senses are reflecting actions, he/she must be continued under treatment. The swing of life is very unpredictable. Even seemingly dead patients survive sometimes.
जातमात्रश्चिकित्स्यस्तु नोपेक्ष्योऽल्पतया गदः । वह्निशस्त्रविषैस्तुल्यः स्वल्पोऽपि विकरोत्यसौ ।।१९।।
19. Merits of immediate treatment:
The disease must be treated immediately after it manifests. Considering its mild and initial stage, one must not ignore the disease, for even a mild disease can get expanded into body as the poison, fire and weapons do, and thus could create problems. Even an ordinary spark of fire has the potential to burn large mound of husk to the ashes. A small knife can kill an individual. And a little amount of poison effectively kills a human being. Similarly if the diseases are not taken care of at initial stage, later on they can get magnified to dangerous proportions and could even create fatal circumstances. A disease that is curable at initial stage can prove fatal if neglected.
शीघ्रचिकित्सासौक़र्यं दृष्टान्तेन विशदयतियथा-
स्वल्पेन यत्नेन छिद्यते तरुणस्तरुः । स एवातिप्रवृद्धस्तु छिद्यतेऽतिप्रयत्नतः ।।२०।।
20. A young tree can be cut down with little efforts. On the contrary the same tree when grown up as adult requires great efforts to cut and fell down. Similarly at initial stage a disease can be cured through such easy treatments as langhaṇa (fasting), etc. But when grown up the same could be checked only after great efforts and medications.
प्रदेह प्रतिकूलेषु नानुकूलं हि भेषजम् ।
ते भेषजानां वीर्याणि हरन्ति बलवन्त्यपि । प्रतिकृत्य ग्रहानादौ पश्चात् कुर्याञ्चिकित्सितम् ।।२१।।
21. Advantage of pacifying antagonistic constellations:
First of all constellations harmful to the patient should be pacified and an auspicious hour should be waited for. Then only treatment should start, for without pacifying the effects of the constellations the impact of even proper medications and dietary regulation is nullified. Therefore, so long as one could afford to wait, one should wait for the pacification of the constellations’ impact and for an auspicious moment. It this method is applied, the result of treatment, is very effective and fast.
याभिः क्रियाभिर्जायन्तेशरीरेधातवः समाः । साचिकित्सा विकाराणां कर्म तद्भिषजां मतम् ।। २२ ।।
22. Characteristics of treatment:
The measures that restore the natural balance of the three dosas, the vāta, pitta and kapha are considered as treatment of the disease. Therefore, the duty of a physician is to reconstitute the natural balance of these dosas in the patient.
आसुरीमानुषीदैवीचिकित्सात्रिविधामता । शस्त्रैः कषायैर्लोहाद्यैः क्रमेणान्त्याः सुपूजिताः ।।२३।।
23. Types of treatment:
The kinds of treatment are three, namely, the Asurī (literally ‘demonic’), the Mănușī (i.e. humanly) and Daivi (i.e. divinely) ones. The treatments involving the surgerical tools and operations are the one of Asuri variety. The Manuşī variety of treatment involves application of herbs and decoctions of various kinds, etc. The Daivi or divinely treatment is one that involves use of Bhasmas of gold, silver, copper, iron, etc. The divinely treatment is the best one while the humanly treatment is considered as of a medium standard. The Asuri treatment is regarded as the inferior variety of cure. The physicians associated with these methods of cure are similarly regarded as best, mediocre and lowly ones.
सर्वथा चिकित्सायाः सफलत्वम्
क्वचिद्धर्मः क्वचिन्मैत्रीक्वचिदर्थः क्वचिद्यशः ।
24. Success of treatment:
A physician gains religious virtues if he/she treats the poor and helpless. Treating patients of equal standards and high qualifications yields friendship, and treating the rich patients offers money. Similarly, if one cures an incurable patient one achieves great recognitions. If one is practising medicine involving different patients he or she accomplishes great experiences. Thus the profession of medicines is always fruitful.
अन्यजातिकृतः पाको ह्यस्पृश्यः सर्वजातिभिः । इति विज्ञाय मतिमान् वैद्यं पाके नियोजयेत् ।। २५ ।।
25. Preparation of the medicines :
The medicinal preparations arranged by individuals of castes other than the vaidyas (physicians’ caste) are not fit to be consumed by the patients of all castes. Therefore, one should not take medicines prepared by individuals other than those from the caste of physicians. The wise persons thus select only the physicians to prepare medicines for use.
विद्यासमाप्तौ भिषजां द्वितीया जातिरुच्यते । न वैद्यो वैद्यशब्दं हि लभते पूर्वजन्मना ||२६||
26. The task of physicians:
By completing the study of Ayurveda, i.e. ‘Science of Life’ one’s caste is altered. He or she is called a physician only on merit of successful compeletion of the study of Ayurveda. One cannot claim the status of being a physician only on count of being born in family of a physician.
विद्यासमाप्तावार्षं वा ब्राह्मवा भिषजंध्रुवम् । सत्त्वमाविशति ज्ञानात्तेन वैद्यो द्विजः स्मृतः ।। २७।।
27. Through a successful completion of Ayurveda, one achieves a classic (Arṣa) and brahmanical knowledge. This makes one qualified to be called as ‘Dvija’, i.e. a twice born.’ a
मोहाद् द्विजातिवर्णाद्यैः पाचितेखादितेसति । प्रायश्चित्ती भवेच्छूद्रो जातिहीनो भवेद् द्विजः ||२८||28. Intake of the medicines prepared by the non-physicians:
Even a sudra (low-born) consuming medicines prepared by non-physicians is condemned to repent for that. If a dvija (twice-born or high-class) takes such medicines, he or she is bound to be condemned. There are only harmful effects in consuming medicines prepared by non-physicians, so one must not take them.
भिषग् द्रव्यमुपस्थाता रोगी पादचतुष्टयम् । गुणवत् कारणं ज्ञेयं विकारस्योपशान्तये ।।२९।।
29. Tools of successful treatment:
The integration of an accomplished healer, medicinal herbs, a nurse and a patient, combination of these four is the pre-condition for a proper treatment.
श्रुते पर्यवदातत्वं बहुशो दृष्टकर्मता । दाक्ष्यं शौचमिति ज्ञेयं वैद्ये गुणचतुष्टयम् ।।३०।।
30. Merits of a physician:
The four essential qualities in an accomplished physician include – (i) being well versed in Ayurveda and the sciences connected with it, (ii) having all the practical experiences under guidance of learned teachers regarding preparation of various drugs, (iii) being very wise in dealing with people of various strata and age, and (iv) being well natured and clean in mind, in speech and in physical habits.
प्रशस्तदेशसम्भूतं प्रशस्तेऽहनि चोद्धृतम् । युक्तमात्रं महावीर्यं गन्धवर्णरसान्वितम् ।। ३१ ।। कीटाद्यभक्षितं शुद्धं मृतं लोहादिकं तथा । समीक्ष्य काले दत्तञ्च भेषजं परमं मतम् ||३२||
31-32. Characteristics of a right kind of herb:
The quality of a perfect herb: It is grown up in a neat and clean area. It is uprooted during an auspicious constellatery position, holy days and through using pure and clean tools. The herb should also be in a proper amount or weight. It should be of perfect colour, should have a proper smelling and should be uncontaminated by various worms and insects. Apart from such pure and perfect herbs, the refined and purified metals like the iron in bhasma forms are counted among proper medicines.
उपचारज्ञता दाक्ष्यमनुरागश्च भर्तरि । शौचञ्चेति चतुर्थोऽयं गुणः परिचरे जने ।। ३३ ।।
33. Characteristics of a right kind of attendant :
The qualities of an efficient nurse include providing proper amount of medicines with proper anupāna (i.e. water, honey, ghritam, or other liquid which carry and circulate the drug to various parts of the body) and regulating diets to the patient as per directions of the physician. A perfect nurse (or attendant) is also one having complete attachment to the diseased one, having clear grasp of the medical processes and being well-natured.
स्मृतिर्निर्देशकारित्वमभीरुत्वमथापि च । ज्ञापकत्वञ्च रोगाणामातुरस्य गुणा मतः ।।३४।।
34. Characteristics of right kind of patient:
The qualities of a patient include having a proper memory, obedience to the instruction of physician, boldness and habit to state correctly the symptoms and feelings related to the ailment.
पादचतुष्टये वैद्यस्य प्राधान्यम्
मृद्दण्डचक्रसूत्राद्याः कुम्भकारादृते यथा । नावहन्ति गुणं वैद्यादृते पादत्रयं तथा ।।३५ ।। 35.
Four legs of a treatment :
As the collection of clay, baton, thread and wheel (the four items used in clay pottery) are of no use in absence of the potter, the combination of drugs, attendant, patient can do little in absence of a physician.
यस्तु रोगमविज्ञाय कर्माण्यारभते भिषक् । अप्यौषधविधानज्ञस्तस्य सिद्धिर्यदृच्छया ।।३६ ।।
36. Condemnation of an unknowledgeable physician:
A physician can never attain success if he or she is having knowledge of only preparation of the drugs. One must have skill also to correctly diagnose the indisposition.
यस्तु रोगविशेषज्ञः सर्वभैषज्यकोविदः । साध्यासाध्यविधानज्ञस्तस्य सिद्धिः करे स्थिता ।।३७।।
37. Praise of a knowledgeable physician:
The physician that is well-versed in understanding diseases as per the nature of the locality, timing and season concerned, that is knowledgeable in terms of the qualities and ingredients of different herbs, and that is having command over curable and incurable diseases, is one that accomplishes success in curing the patient.
दृष्टकर्माचशास्त्रज्ञोवैद्यःस्यात् सिद्धिभागसौ । एकाङ्ग्रहीनो न श्लाघ्य एकपक्ष इव द्विजः ।। ३८।।
38. Merits of a knowledgeable physician:
A bird that has only one wing cannot fly in the sky. Likewise, one that is having only theoretical or only practical knowledge of treatment cannot achieve success. Only that physician can be successful which has thoroughly studied the Ayurveda and which has attained proper practical trainings under experts.
शास्त्रं गुरुमुखोद्गीर्णमादायोपास्य चासकृत् । यः कर्म कुरुते वैद्यः स वैद्योऽन्ये तु तस्कराः ।।३९ ।।
39. Definition of a right kind of physician:
A physician is one who has properly understood the statements of his or her teacher (guru) and who has repeatedly practiced the theories thus studied. He (or she) only is qualified to commence on the profession. On the contrary, the one who has a background of only a self-study of the medical books is not qualified to engage in practice. Such person is liable to be termed as swindler.
अविज्ञाय तु शास्त्राणि भेषजं कुरुते भिषक् । यम एव स विज्ञेयो मर्त्यानां मर्त्यरूपधृक् ।।४०।।
40. Condemnation of a physician that does not know the scientific texts: The one who is practicing without any knowledge and study of the medicine is none but the Yama (the Death God) in guise of a physician.
कुचैलः कर्कश स्तब्धः कुग्रामी स्वयमागतः । पञ्च वैद्या न पूज्यन्ते धन्वन्तरिसमा अपि ।।४१ ।।
41. The physicians to be despised:
Physicians even when having a very high knowledge of medicine (or who can equal Dhanvantarī, the healing God himself) but demonstrating the following five characteristics are to be despised: (i) putting on dirty, soiled and stinking clothing, (ii) having a habit to speak roughly and harsh, (iii) living in the slum-areas, (iv) being a cheat and self-eulogizer, and (v) being accustomed to visit the patients even when they are not called for.
नाडीजिह्वाऽऽस्यमूत्राणांपरीक्षांयोनविन्दति । मारयत्याशु जन्तून्हिस वैद्यो यम एव हि ।।४२।।
42. One, who is not competent enough to check the pulse, tongues, mouth and urine of the patient is a killer physician. A patient should avoid treatment from such persons, for they are none but the Yama (the Death God) in guise of a physician.
अप्येकं नीरुजं कृत्वा जनं यादृशतादृशम् । आयुर्वेदप्रसादेन किं न दत्तं भवेद् भुवि ।। ४३ ||
43. Merits of successful treatment:
A physician that has cured a patient having curable or incurable disease through treating him/her by drugs should be considered as one who has donated the most valuable item in the earth, the life itself.
कपिलाकोटिदानाद्धि यत्फलं परिकीर्तितम् । फलं तत्कोटिगुणितमेकातुरचिकित्सया ।।४४।।
44. Similar opinion:
The religious virtue one attains by donating thousands of thousand yellow colour (seemingly the best among the) cows is superseded by the virtues one gains by treating only a single patient.
धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाणामारोग्यं कारणं यतः । तस्मादारोग्यदानेन नरो भवति सर्वदः ||४५||
45. Similar opinion:
The four kinds of duties and pursuits in life, namely the religious duties, the professional activities, the responsibility to carry progeny (including sexual relations), and practice of austerities to gain Mokṣa (roughly, emancipation from worldly evils), all of these need a disease free body. Therefore, the one (i.e. a physician) who provides freedom from disease and provides health is the greatest donor in the world.
अप्येकं नीरुजीकृत्य व्याधितं भेषजैर्नरः । प्रयाति ब्रह्मसदनं कुलसप्तकसंयुतः ।।४६ ।।
46. Similar opinion:
By curing only a single patient through drugs, a physician is able to attain the Brahmalok (i.e. the best heaven) after death, and that too along with relatives spread through seven families.
चिकित्सकस्य ऋणादनिर्मुक्तौ दोषः-
चिकित्सितशरीरं यो न निष्क्रीणाति दुर्मतिः । स यत् करोति सुकृतं तत्सर्वं भिषगश्नुते ।।४७।।
47. On non-payment by the cured patient:
The patient who does not pay money to the physician after being cured or who does not compensate his fees through serving him in person (in case of the want of money) is not free from the loan of his physician. In such condition, the virtues gained by the cured ones get transferred to the credit of the physician only.
व्याघेस्त्रिधा ज्ञानं पुनर्दर्शयति
दर्शनस्पर्शनप्रश्नैर्व्याघेर्ज्ञानं त्रिधा मतम् ।
दर्शनान्मूत्रजिह्वाद्यैः स्पर्शनान्नाडिकादिभिः । प्रश्नैर्दूतादिवचनादिति त्रेधा समुच्यते ।।४८।। 48.
Characteristics of a cured patient:
A disease is diagnosed through examination by eye, touch and questioning. Moreover, an observation of the stool and urine passed by the patient, of his tongue, eyes, hands, and legs and other limbs can also reflect the nature and form of the diseases. A disease is also diagnosed through examining the pulse of the patients. The diagnosis can also be achieved through the relatives and messengers furnishing details of the condition, dietary habits and symptoms of the patient.
रोगमादौ परीक्षेत ततोऽनन्तरमौषधम् । ततः कर्म भिषक् पश्चाज्ज्ञानपूर्वं समाचरेत् ।। ४९ ।।
49. Process of treatment:
As described above, the physician should methodically examine the patient and diagnose the ailment. This should be followed by the tasting of the drugs to be applied. He should check if the drugs are really effective and purposeful for the patient. After these two observations (of the patient and the drugs), one should begin treatment in an intelligent manner.
यथा विषं यथा शस्त्रं यथाऽग्निरशनिर्यथा । तथौषधमविज्ञातं विज्ञातममृतं यथा ।।५० ।।
50. Merits and demerits of medicines administered without a proper diagnosis:
The medication administrated by a stupid physician can even kill a patient as poison kills the human beings. It can also cause scabies and wounds in the body, and burning sensation. On the other hand a medication applied by a physician possessing both the theoretical and practical knowledge saves the life of patient and frees him from diseases as the nectar saves one’s life.
इति भिषप्रत्नश्रीगोविन्ददाससंगृहीतायां भैषज्यरत्नावल्यां मिश्रवर्गप्रकरणं तृतीयम् ।।३।।
इति विद्योतनीभाषाटीकायां मिश्रवर्गप्रकरणम् ।।३।।
End of the Chapter 3 of Bhaiṣajya Ratnavali with Commentary